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Psychology & Clinical Psychiatry

Review Article Volume 8 Issue 3

Women’s Management Model, Strengths and Application Methods

Alina Y Bukharina

Association of Independent T&D Experts/TnD Association, Russia

Correspondence: Alina Y Bukharina, Association of Independent T&D Experts/TnD Association Moscow, Russia

Received: September 02, 2017 | Published: December 15, 2017

Citation: Bukharina AY (2017) Women’s Management Model. Strengths and Application Methods. J Psychol Clin Psychiatry 8(3): 00488. DOI: 10.15406/jpcpy.2017.08.00488

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Does women’s leadership exist or is it just a fashionable word with no substance behind it? Is it necessary to separate women's and men's management styles by gender? Does the Women's Management Model have a right to exist on its own? All these questions are similar to those that women asked themselves when they declared their desire to choose their own work, purpose, and destiny. Of course, this is a global problem that is the subject of discussion all over the world. Moreover, development of women entrepreneurship is one of the most important worldwide trends as women entrepreneurship drives economy in social sector and in the field of micro- and small business [1]. In the US and Europe, this issue is being addressed within the framework of multiculturalism and diversity [1-3]. On the Eurasian part of the continent, due to cultural and social aspects, the question remains open. In Russia, this issue is even more pressing due to the increasing number of women in management on one hand and the overwhelmingly masculine culture on the other [4-6]. If we turn to history, the question of women's self-determination in Russia can be traced back to the 1870s. At this time, some individuals began to speak out about women’s self-determination in spite of traditional social pressures. In the twentieth century, this process developed broadly at the national scale. What do we see today? Women occupy leadership positions in the government. Many women are prominent public, scientific and social figures. However, the question of whether women can have their own management model, whether they actually have the right to differ from men in this matter, is met with a lot of resistance from various sides. In this article, an attempt will be made to rethink the existing constructs and modern scientific approaches [7,8] to identify the basic principles and skills that the Women's Management Model can rely on, based on the historical and social development of society, as well as the neurophysiological processes confirmed by current scientific research [9,10]. The author does not intend to find differences between men and women or to show that one gender is more effective than the other. Actually, this is not the goal. The necessity to deal with this issue was prompted by a large number of successful, professionally accomplished and ... extremely unhappy women who cry in therapy sessions. In their opinion, the work they love destroys the rest of their lives. They have to behave one way at work, but be completely different at home. This “life theater” with millions of roles drives women crazy. This is also a personal story. After several Russian and international awards and a brilliant career, I burned out and spent years trying to find myself. This search prompted me to ask: "Is it possible to do things differently?" Is it possible to select a model and develop skills that will not break the inner female essence, will not contradict it and force us to abandon our inner sense of self, transforming us from women into great and terrible Bosses [11]? Is it possible to be successful and at the same time harmonious? More importantly, this model had to be based on specific tools and techniques that can be described and replicated, not an abstract concept based on esotericism. This article contains the results of these studies, several years of practice, testing different techniques on myself and clients, collection and improvements to the methodology. So, let us turn to the root of the question. A report by the USA National Academy of Sciences (2001) states that gender is one of the most important characteristics that should be directly taken into account when planning and analyzing scientific research. Of course, physicians, for example, know the fact that the human embryo is getting a certain set of chromosomes: XX (female) or XY (male). Further development of the fetus is then based on this different set of chromosomes. Moreover, fetal sex determination happens between 18 and 24 weeks, so the physiological differences in the structure of the brains of men and women, which will be discussed in detail below, happen prior to socialization. The brains of men and women are "distinguished not only by the structure of various parts of the brain, but also by the structure of neural circuits and chemical compounds that transfer signals between neurons" [12]. Nature is the perfect mentor. By means of natural selection, it develops the best in women and in men. Furthermore, it does not favor unjustified duplication of functions. If we shift our lens from neurobiology to culture and history, men and women developed historically and evolutionarily as a kind of community, like a couple that complements each other. What is poorly developed in men is strongly developed in women, and vice versa. The fundamentals of this message are supported by hundreds of thousands of years of history, as well as by cultural patterns that adhere to the narrative of two halves, two parts of a single whole. Romance aside, there is certain wisdom to this, allegorically describing the fact that men need women because they possess qualities that men do not have, or that are poorly developed in men.

Summarizing the above, we can draw two conclusions, which we will reference in the future:

  1. The brains of men and women work in different ways. This is already taken into account in sports (by sports psychologists who train athletes), military affairs, training, and rehabilitation programs. The same applies to business. It is necessary to accept it as a fact and learn how to use it in the most effective way.
  2. The qualities that women are naturally endowed with (strengths) are poorly developed in men. And vice versa - women are poorly developed in spheres that men are predisposed toward, or require a lot more effort to develop those skills.

Of course, like in any population, this theory is about the majority for which everything that is said below will be relevant. There are also exceptions that make up 5-7% of the total population of women in the world. They are quite comfortable in all aspects of living and accepting male models, and these models do not cause them internal contradictions and deformities. However, let us turn to the majority, which will be discussed. If you think about Leadership and management models and theories that first come to mind, and their authors, you probably remember S. Kovi, I. Adizes, P. Druker, D. Welch, Hershey Blanchard, P. Meyers, D. Logan and D. King (from recent) and many others. Thus, we see that the majority of models being replicated to date have been developed and described by men, which makes sense if we look at the historical context and the time women started to enter management roles. Anyone is more likely to succeed in what they have a natural predisposition toward or talent in. That is why "male" management models are based on the experience and achievements experienced by men. Thereby, the most famous and common business models are the product of rethinking the male experience. So why are they becoming less effective? There are at least two answers: because the world is changing (this will be discussed below), and because male-oriented models work well for male managers. For women-leaders, they literally fit just like a man’s suit: you can wear it, but it’s uncomfortable. Based on the thesis advanced above, "What is well developed in men is poorly developed in women," we can make a further assumption: in adopting a male model based on the male experience (male strengths), a woman receives a tool that is based on her weak side. As a result, she spends years developing her weaknesses instead of relying on her strengths. This is the kind of trap that a modern business woman often falls into.

Moreover, society and the very essence of women play a cruel joke on those who base their work on the male model. After all, by adopting certain techniques and developing the skills that characterize a man, a woman unwittingly begins to "send a signal" to others about her masculinity. The first person who reads this signal is her partner, who is closest to her. If the lioness behaves like a lion, the male will first become perplexed, and then begin to display open aggression toward the rival (which is how he begins to perceive such behavior) that invaded his territory. In relations between people, the same thing happens: a woman begins to lose her partner. He detaches at first and then begins to clash with her aggressively. Eventually, he will want the woman to make a choice: it’s either him or her career/business. It does not matter what the choice is, for a woman it is always deplorable. The thing that is interesting is that both partners and subordinates condemn male models in their own way: "Women who adhere to the" male "style in leadership risk being perceived as commanders. Men who adhere to the same line of behavior are simply considered resolute "[13]. In this way, copying the male experience for the majority of women is a road to nowhere, as in the end she encounters her nature, her family and society. These forces are unequal. The woman loses. What can women do in this situation? How do you break the vicious cycle? You don’t have to give up your career or your family. You just have to stop trying to fit into somebody else’s clothes and learn that there is an alternative. Women also have strengths that need to be used. When this is done properly, it will be easier to achieve results and the personality of the woman-leader herself will be in harmony with her nature. But first, it is worth considering in more detail what nature has given to women. Unlike men, whose behavior is controlled by a single leading hormone (testosterone), the behavior (and mood) of women depends on the combination of seven different hormones [14]. Such a system gives women on the one hand instability, but on the other hand - great variability and flexibility. It also gives women a natural Agile edge and the ability to multitask. Men learn this for years, while women master it in early childhood. This same variability allows women to make more effective decisions in situations of uncertainty, and to sincerely seek a solution that will satisfy the maximum number of parties. According to Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Chernigovskaya T [15] "Women have more connections between the hemispheres. In a man’s brain, communication happens within the confines of each hemisphere: the left communicates with the left, and the right with the right. Evolutionally, this is understandable: women are more effective in ordinary life ..." [16,17] That is, the female brain was initially intended for cross-functional projects inside one skull, applying both logic and creative thinking when completing a task. This is what makes it possible to think outside the box, to find unique win-win solutions to problems.

This is confirmed by Professor S. Savelyev, who clarifies that women have a backup system of data "archiving", which allows them to store a much larger amount of data, images, and solutions in their long-term memory [18]. Women have a much broader radius of peripheral vision. This allows the brain to receive up to 50% more information, though unconsciously. However, for the brain it does not matter. This explains the phenomenon of "female intuition" – when a woman really sees and understands something, but it happens unconsciously. Women's intuition exists also due to the hormone oxytocin. In a woman’s body, oxytocin is responsible for motherhood, communication, and attachment. It’s how a woman communicates with her child in the pre-natal period. Therefore, women are much more likely to read nonverbal cues, which we know contain up to 70% of real information. This is why women are better at picking up on mixed signals: when people say one thing, but gestures, posture, and facial expression betray something else. All this makes a woman's intuition a powerful tool that we need to learn and use. Oxytocin also gave women the unique opportunity to self-motivate and emotionally reboot. Try to explain to a 6-month old baby that you do not have enough motivation to feed, entertain and engage today! That's why women do better and burn out less on long-term projects that require daily hard, monotonous work. Together with the developed limbic system - the brain zone that controls emotional behavior, women by default received higher empathy and developed Emotional Intelligence (EQ), which, as researchers proved more than 30 years ago, is more important than IQ for managers. In addition to physiology, there are number of features that have evolved in women over time. Briefly, this thesis can be formulated as follows: the advantages of women are a consequence of their physical weakness. First, women live in a permanent state of collaboration. What one woman cannot do is possible with two or three women. For a woman, the ability to recruit other ladies to help with domestic tasks is just as natural as the desire for risk and adventure in men. The second function that has been built into the female essence by default is the ability to create a working community, a network of contacts (networking), which is a necessary competence today. This ability allows women to effectively conduct business and cope with tasks even when they don’t have as much knowledge about the subject at hand, since a woman can always resort to the help of her community. Secondly, this type of life has formed two more features of women's management: teamwork and the perception of the team as a "family", and proactive creative behavior. A woman will sincerely care for her partners and subordinates, and the key driver is usually the desire to create, cultivate, and mentor. For men, the main driver is competition and the desire to demonstrate one's status / power.

It also makes sense to say a few words about stress and women’s stress resistance. Thanks to experiments conducted by Tracey J. Shors from the University of Rutgers, there is scientific evidence of the fact that women do not need to be stressed in order to be successful at work. The same experiments found that stress is vitally important for men. At the same time, women were more stress-resistant to the kind of long-term stress that is typical for the current state of business and the economy [19]. Life strategy. Men were originally born to be hunters, leave offspring, and die young. Women were "programmed" not only to leave offspring, but also to ensure their survival (and her own survival) for at least 15 years. So, historically and socially, men provide short, but strong breakthroughs. Women, on the other hand, are better at strategic projects. In the modern world, there are fewer phenomenal breakthroughs, but increasingly more strategic long-term projects, for which women are better suited. The natural weakness of women gave them other advantages that are valuable in the modern world. Women are cowardly. Hence, women are law-abiding and seek to minimize risks. International statistics from different countries and banks demonstrate that women pay taxes better, are more careful about documentation and legal issues, and are more responsible and reliable borrowers of funds. Women do not tend to fight, so they conduct business more calmly and honestly. All of this is reflected in medical, cultural, and applied research. In order to demonstrate this, it is worthwhile to turn to research by Russian psychologist Chirikova AE [20], which covers the skills entrepreneurs think are necessary in order to be successful in business. The list is presented in Table 1. As is evident from this study, women prioritize flexibility and the ability to find win-win solutions, confidence in themselves and their mission - commitment and idea and a sincere belief in what she does, in the value of her company. It is also worth paying attention to the general creative spirit of women entrepreneurs, the desire to create and support their team. Men, on the other hand, have identified the ability to impose their position, the ability to use other people's ideas and abilities as key criteria for success.

Business Behavior in Women Entrepreneurs

Business Behavior in Male  Entrepreneurs

Ability to compromise, flexibly negotiate

Constant readiness for change, ability to innovate

Confidence in yourself and your mission

Ability to impose one's position, if necessary

Ability to act in situations of conflict and risk

Ability to feel free and to benefit within the scope of rules and regulations

Constant readiness for change, ability to innovate

Ability to effectively use the skills and abilities of others

Ability to make quick choices

Ability to use other people's ideas to realize own goals

Ability to effectively use the skills and abilities of others

Ability to act in situations of conflict and risk

Healthy conservatism. A realistic attitude to innovation

Ability to impress, establish and maintain relationships with other people

Ability to defend one's position

Confidence in oneself and one’s mission

Ability to live in the present

Ability to defend one's position

Table 1: Skills and abilities entrepreneurs think are necessary for success in business [20].

All the above allows us to identify the key skills or strengths that a woman should rely on as a leader and manager:

  1. Multitasking
  2. Proactivity
  3. Empathy, high EQ
  4. Flexibility, variability, search for win-win solutions
  5. Confidence in oneself and one’s mission (reliance on values)
  6. Mentoring
  7. Networking and teamwork
  8. Intuition
  9. Creativity and generating ideas
  10. Responsibility
  11. Self-motivation
  12. Risk reduction
  13. Long-term projects.

This skills and competences form Women’s Management Model (Figure 1). Concluding this article, it is worth paying attention to the results of the International Economic Forum in Davos (2016), which identified the key skills and competencies that are relevant in 2020 and beyond:

  1. Complex problem solving
  2. Critical thinking
  3. Creativity
  4. People management
  5. Coordinating with others
  6. Emotional intelligence
  7. Judgment and decision making
  8. Service orientation
  9. Negotiation
  10. Cognitive flexibility [21].

Figure 1: Women’s Management Model Bukharina AY [22].

The majority of these new competences are associated with the female management model as is presented in Table 2. Perhaps this explains the growing role of women in the economy and management. As we see visually, the majority of competencies are the same of very similar. So, we can assume that development of personal qualities and competencies based on Women’s Management Model should allow women not only building a successful career, but also being harmonious personalities. Summarizing this article, it should be noted that the modern VUCA-world calls into question the dogma of "male" models, demanding an alternative [22]. The development of a management model based on key competencies and skills that play into women’s strengths is an actual response to the challenges of our time. Therefore, instead of conducting discussions about whether we should take objective reality seriously or not, it is worth trying to change. Change is always an opportunity for those who dared and took a step towards the future [23].

Competencies 2020 (IEF, Davos)

Women’s Management Model

Complex problem solving



Critical thinking

Risk reduction



Creativity and generating ideas

People management




Coordinating with others

Networking and teamwork

Emotional intelligence

High EQ

Judgment and decision making

Confidence in oneself and one’s mission (reliance on values)

Orientation on the Long-term projects

Service orientation

Empathy, femininity, service


Search for win-win solutions

Cognitive flexibility

Flexibility, variability

Table 2: Comparing competencies 2020 (IEF, Davos, 2016) and competencies of women’s management model (2017).


Ph.D. Nataliya N. Tolstykh (Scientific Director); Anna Reznichenko, director of “ANS-Lingua” Agency, head of Skolkovo Women Association (providing translation of the manuscript); Alina Barinova, head of Women’s Leadership Forum; Anna Rudakova, Executive Director of a prize “A Woman Matters”; LL.D. Marina V. Volynkina, rector of IGUMO&IT.

Conflict of Interest

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


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