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Journal of
eISSN: 2378-3184

Aquaculture & Marine Biology

Opinion Volume 7 Issue 5

Hydrologic control in llanos de Moxos, Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia

Takayuki Yunoki

Centro de Investigaci n de Recursos Acu ticos Universidad Aut noma del Beni Bolivia

Correspondence: Takayuki Yunoki Centro de Investigaci n de Recursos Acu ticos Universidad Aut noma del Beni Jos Ballivi n CIRA UAB Trinidad Beni Bolivia

Received: September 13, 2018 | Published: September 26, 2018

Citation: Yunoki T. Hydrologic control in llanos de Moxos, Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia. J Aquac Mar Biol. 2018;7(5):265-266. DOI: 10.15406/jamb.2018.07.00218

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The Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia are localized between Andes and Brazilian shield, and delimited by the Fitzcarrald arch in north1 and the Michicolaarch in south.2 The Fitzcarrald arch uplift occurred since Pliocene (4 Ma) by the subduction of oceanic ridge below continental plate. This arch form the division of upper Madeira River from the northern rivers of Amazon.1 The Michicolaarch was formed since Oligocene (30 Ma) by the eastward propagation of Andes. Actually this arch is covered by sediments in lowlands,2 and the division between the upper Madeira-Amazon River and the Paraguay-La Plata River in this part is not prominent, experiencing the frequent changes of river courses in megafans.3

The recent revision of phylogeny, biogeography, geology and paleontology support the ancient origin of modern genus of fishes before the division of actual hydrologic basin in South America, and suggest the divergence of phenotypes during Palaeogene and the role of ecologic specialization of linages and environmental configuration for vicariance and geo-dispersal during Neogene.4 In other words, the effect of division of upper Madeira River may be observed in the difference of diversity in the species level caused by allopatric speciation. Furthermore, the effect of connection to the northern rivers of Amazon through river course might have been different between the groups of migratory species adapted to seasonal environments and sedentary species adapted to stable environments.5,6 The division between the upper Madeira River and the Paraguay River was semipermeable because of the frequent changes of river courses in mega fans and head river capture events in Sub-Andes and Brazilian shield, and the effects of these connections might be different between the groups of species adapted to lowlands and uplands4 etc.

During last decades, the exploration of ichthyologist has doubled the list of fishes in Bolivian Amazon, indicating the high level of species endemism7 however, understanding the origin and maintenance of diversity and the influence of human activity to diversity is challenge. In llanos de Moxos or the floodplain of department of Beni, numerous authors have postulated that the pre-Columbian civilization practiced the fishery by hydrologic control. Exist the archaeological sites across department, presenting the trace of civil works like weirs, elevated land areas, ponds, etc.8,9 and there mains of fishes recovered in Loma Salvatierra were the groups of species observed in the artificial ponds near the town of Trinidad, the capital departmental of Beni.10 These species colonize to ephemeras water bodies with high rate of population increase, production of dormant eggs, capacity of air breathing, etc. The processes are deterministic in the ponds connected to the floodplain during low water levels, in that seasonal breeding species with large body size and air breathing ability colonize from nearby sites, excluding small body species. The dynamics across years show the segregation of community average value for batch fecundity associated with fish density, and may be dependent of magnitude and duration of flood events. While the processes are neutral in the isolated ponds and newly flooded ponds, in that fishes are recruited in situ and dispersals are limited. The deterministic processes and the association between life history traits of species and environmental configuration are achieved by efficient dispersal, indicating that the species adapted to a specific type of habitat exist subsequently colonized an area after it was altered via human activities.11

Llanos de Moxos, especially Mamoré River floodplain is known for their productivity and diversity,12 however, commercial fishery is selective for large body species, establishing in the low level of exploitation.13 Furthermore, the extreme drought and flood events are causing significant economic impacts and a large number of fatalities.14 The construction of loads, elevated land areas and ponds is a common practice in civil works and ranching, and our results indicate the possibility to control the fish community organization of these artificial water bodies, managing the connectivity and local environmental conditions. The harvesting and commercialization via hydrologic control mechanisms may be advantageous for remote towns located in the tropics such as Trinidad, because of the high fish density and the ability to breathe air among fish.13,14



Conflict of interest

Author declares that there is no conflict of interest.


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