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Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal

Mini Review Volume 8 Issue 3

Pharmacological activities of Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth: A mini review

Sanjay Kumar,1 Reshma Kumari2

1Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, India
2Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidhyalaya, India

Correspondence: Reshma Kumari, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidhyalaya, Haridwar-249404, India, Tel +918755388132

Received: May 15, 2020 | Published: June 22, 2020

Citation: Kumar S, Kumari R. Pharmacological activities of Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth: A mini review. Pharm Pharmacol Int J. 2020;8(3):180-182. DOI: 10.15406/ppij.2020.08.00294

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The Ballota L. genera belonging to the Lamiaceae family found mainly in the Mediterranean area, Middle East, and North Africa. From the ancient times this genus has been largely explored for their biological properties. Phytochemical investigations of Ballota species have revealed that diterpenoids are the main constituents of the genera. A large number of flavonoids and other metabolites were also identified. This mini review covers the traditional and pharmacological properties of Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth species.


All over the world various plants have been used as medicine. More recently, plant extracts have been developed and proposed for various biological process. In developing countries herbal medicine has been improved as a substitute solution to health problems and costs of pharmaceutical products. The development of drug resistance pathogens against antibiotics has required a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources, including plants. Plants contain a wide range of substances that are used to treat chronic as well as infectious diseases.1

The genus Ballota L. (Lamiaceae) consists of about 33 species growing mainly in the Mediterranean region. In Turkey, the genus Ballota is represented by 11 species, 6 subspecies, 10 of which are endemic.2 B. acetabulosa was first described by Carl von Linnaeus as Marrubium acetabulosum in 17533 and later on taxonomically described in its current nomenclature by George Bentham in 1834.4 This species is used as a remedy for wounds and burns. Aerial plant part may serve as Natural food preservative.5

Habitat and distribution

Plant found in rocks and rough ground in dry hills, well-drained sand, chalk, loamy soil.6,7 It usually grows at an elevation up to 900 m.6,8 This plant is native to East Aegean Islands, Greece, Kriti, Turkey and Turkey-in-Europe.7

Botanical description

Shrubs up to 60 m., stem erect up to 80 cm long, woolly haired, port dense, rounded compact. Leaves evergreen, thick, fluffy, drawing greyish to green on white, opposite, ovate serrated, wavy margin, aromatic, small whorls, 2-lipped flowered; petiole small, toothed and rounded, diameter up to 5 cm. Flowers small hermaphrodite, grouped in small whorled ears and foliate; calyx green, elongate, 1.5 cm long, funnel shaped, widens with a diameter of 2 cm after flowering; corolla, purple and white, just above the calyx. Fruit small, trigons, pink mottled, scratched violet-purple.7,9,10

Pharmacological activity

Dugler and Dugler investigated the antimicrobial activities of methanolic leaf extracts of B. acetabulosa by disc diffusion and microdilution method against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans pathogens causing complicated urine tract infections. They observed strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli (ZOI-18.6 mm), with MIC (MBC) of 32(64) mg/mL.11 Dulger and Kilcik studied the antifungal activities of ethanol extracts prepared from the leaves, rootstock and the combined formulation of B. acetabulosa against medical yeast Candida species (C. albicans ATCC 10231, C. tropicalis ATCC 13803 and C. guilliermondii ATCC 6260) and Cryptococcus species (C. neoformans ATCC 90112 and C. laurentii ATCC 34142) by the visual broth macrodilution method. They observed a strong antifungal effect against Candida species compared to Cryptococcus species (MIC-3.12 to 25 mg/mL).8

Phytochemical contents

The phytochemical research of B. acetabulosa led the isolation and identification of several groups of phytochemical constituents. We have briefly summarized various phytochemicals of B. acetabulosa in Table 1.



Labdane diterpenes

Ballonigrin, dehydrohispanolone (hispanone)11,12








Scutellarein 7,4′-dimethyl ether14,15



Flavone glycosides






Flavonol glycosides


Acyl flavonoid glycosides

Apigenin-7-O-β-D-(4’’-E-p-coumaroyl)glucopyranoside (echinaticin); chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-(3′′-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside; chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-(3′′-Z-p-coumaroyl)glucopyranoside517

Flavanones, flavanone glycosides




Carboxylic acids

Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, E-coumaric acid, gallic acid, rosmarinic acid16

Other metabolites


Table 1 Different phytochemical contents of B. acetabulosa

Therapeutic properties

Whole plant has anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, depressant, diuretic, stimulant, spasmolytic, sudorific and expectorant properties.10 Aerial part posses anti-inflammatory activity, anti-tussive activity,8,18 anti-oxidant activity19 and anti-microbial activity.8,18,20

Medicinal uses

B. acetabulosa is mainly used to treat cough and cold,8 gastrointestinal disorder,5 haemorrhoids,21 wounds and burns,8,22 nephrolithiasis, gout, diabetes, as well as depression, anxiety and hysteria.10In homeopathy it is used in the form of anti-cough tincture, insomnia and nervous system disorders.10


In this mini review we have briefly summarized the tra­ditional uses, ethnobotanical description, ethnophar­macological properties and phytochemical constituents that have been isolated from B. acetabulosa. This mini review highlights the significance of the ethnopharmacological prop­erties of B. acetabulosa, and research on B. acetabulosa should be encouraged. Further research should be conducted to explore new potential therapeutic agents and their ethnopharmacological properties for the treat­ment of life-threatening diseases.



Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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