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Open Access Journal of
eISSN: 2576-4578

Translational Medicine & Research

Research Article Volume 2 Issue 5

Depression in postpartum women-Ibarra

Maria Ximena Tapia Paguay,1 Amparo Paola Tito Pineda,1 Samantha Abigail Montenegro Tapia2

1Technical University of the North UTN, Ecuador
2Student career of Medicine University of the Americas (UDLA)

Correspondence: Maria Ximena Tapia Paguay, Technical University of the North UTN, Ecuador

Received: May 04, 2018 | Published: November 26, 2018

Citation: Paguay MXT, Pineda APT, Tapia SAM. Depression in postpartum women-Ibarra. Open Access J Trans Med Res. 2018;2(5):142-144. DOI: 10.15406/oajtmr.2018.02.00056

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Abstract

Depression is defined as feeling melancholy, sad, unhappy, miserable, or low mood. True clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for an extended time. The depression may be low, moderate, or severe.1 So-called study: depression in women postpartum in the parish of Priory in the city of Ibarra, whose objective was to determine the degree of postpartum depression in women at the Centre of health of Priory Ibarra, qualitative design, not experimental, descriptive, observational, and cross-cut type for which test was used as a study tool of Edinburgh to establish or determine the degree of depression in which women are post-partum up to 9 months, before take the test, explained and are clearly informed about the study and signed informed consent, the results obtained; women with two children, unmarried civilian State, with secondary education most Edinburgh scale test shows results of depression mild, perhaps because of the family situation in which are found, lack of support from parents or your partner , women with moderate depression in which his answer in question 10, was positive in which it interrogates if they wanted to do some damage, these results should be taken with caution since it can be a trigger of complications that can make run at risk the life of the binomial mother-child, professionals should be monitor closely these women to ensure an improvement in their quality of life.

Introduction

The World Health Organization (who) defines mental health as "a State of well-being in which the individual is aware of his own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitful and is able to make a contribution to their community.2 Depression instead is a common disease in the world, and it is estimated to affect more than 300 million people. It is different from the usual swings of mood and short emotional responses to the problems of everyday life. You can become a serious health problem, especially when it's long lasting and moderate to severe, and may cause great suffering and alter work, school and family activities. In the worst cases it can lead to suicide. Each year they kill themselves close to 800 000 people and suicide is the second leading cause of death in the age group of 15 to 29 years.3 It is the mental disorder that affects the population and is also one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Although it is a treatable disease, six of every ten people who suffer from it in Latin America and the Caribbean, do not seek or do not receive the treatment they need; It is more common in women than in men. Between two and four in ten mothers in developing countries suffer from depression during pregnancy or postpartum.4

In Latin America and the Caribbean affects 5% of the adult population. It's a disorder that can affect any person at some point in their lives, so it must be cared for and supported psychologically and socially. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not clear. However, the investigations and the specialists in this branch of medicine are running that there are a number of factors that contribute to its development. These include: childbirth, biological factors, changes in the way of life, social circumstances, family background, preconceived notions about motherhood.5This study aims to: identify depression post partum women up to 9 months, was taken as an instrument scale of Edinburgh post-partum depression which was created to assist professionals in the primary health care in the detection of the mothers suffering from postpartum depression; an alarming condition longer than the "melancholy of la Maternidad" ["Blues" in English] (which occurs during the first week after delivery) but that is less serious than puerperal psychosis.6

Materials and methods

Study conducted in up to 9 months postpartum women, served in the health centre of Priory in the city of Ibarra during the period August - December 2016, took into account the questionnaire of the scale of depression postpartum Edinburgh (EDPE), mothers they decided to be part of the study are given and explained informed consent for its corresponding signature. The of qualitative research, not experimental, descriptive, observational and cross-sectional design; sample was confirmed by women in postpartum period to be served in the parish health centre of Priory - Ibarra. Scale or Edinburgh test indicates the way in which the mother felt, after childbirth, consists of 10 questions, with 4 options of answers each question in the questionnaire have been categorized to assign a score of 0, 1, 2 and 3, according to the increase in symptom severity. For questions 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, points should be reported in reverse order, i.e., 3, 2, 1, and 0, in accordance with the structuring of the 4 possible answers available for your selection.6

According to this premise, the depression Post partum is evaluated and is weighted in the following manner:

Normal: score up to 5 EDPPE and absence of risk factors.

Minor: score EDPPE up to 10 and with a risk factor.

Moderate: score EDPPE between 11 and 20, and 2 risk factors.

Severe: score EDPPE more than 20 and with more than 2 risk factors.

These results were systematized and tabulated using Microsoft Excel and then plotted, discussed and analyzed.

Results

Figures (1−4) & Table 1

Normal

mild

moderate

severe

total

28

20

4

0

52

53.8

38.5

7.7

0

100

Table 1 Edinburgh depression test

Figure 1 Relationship of the marital status and ethnicity.

Figure 2 Number of children.

Figure 3 Instruction.

Figure 4 Edinburgh depression scale.

Discussion

The study group belongs to the mestizo ethnic group mostly, with a minimum percentage of indigenous and afro-Ecuadorian, taking into account that the place of research belongs to the province of Imbabura, which is considered to be a multi-ethnic province, the INEC mentions that 65.7% of the population are self identifying as mestizo, in this study, was obtained as a result that most women keep a common-law union relationship, which is at odds with what you mention the INEC, in relation to marital status 41.5% of women are married, this result can be taken into account by the age of women ranging from 16 to 30 years. In terms of the number of children, 65.4%, has two sons, followed by those with three and in similar percentages though minimums have 4 and 5 children. The INEC mentions that now families on average 1.6 children, at the same time mentions that social changes lead to prioritizing the amount. People want to improve living conditions for their children, which means reducing the number because it is no longer as before that the son was a contribution on labour, now means a cost involved offer a dignified life ".7 The most populous cities in the country are: Guayaquil with 2' 291.158 inhabitants, followed by Quito with 1' 619.146. Cities with less population are Galapagos 25.034 inhabitants and Pastaza with 83.933.

To analyze the data obtained in the women who come to the health centre in Priory, results somewhat alarming, since 38.5% of women who have been mothers, is this your first or second child, they have a rating of mild depression, taking into Note that the postnatal period is a vulnerable phase for the mother and son already faced a series of changes that require a proper adaptation. To successfully achieve this process, early intervention should be considered in the different phases of the process of becoming a mother, especially if you present that most of the pictures are diagnosed late which can have serious impact on maternal and infant health.8 Once produced the birth, naturally that focus it greater attention on the newborn, however, the postpartum period is a key period in the life of the woman who requires monitoring. The adaptive process that she lives during the postpartum period often makes appear feelings and behaviors attributable to changes in the mood. Its correct valuation will allow to distinguish on the maternal condition and make relevant interventions to address them.1 It is important to emphasize the socio-economic condition of the mothers studied, are of limited economic resources, most have only completed high school and they have 1-2 risk factors may be critical the emotional state of the mother, factors such as the little support of parents or the couple may be triggers of emotional of the mother State, to be alone and without family support, 7.7% of the investigated, have two risk factors, including them in the depression group moderate, concern for the authorities that should another type of care for these patients, in question No.10 where mothers presented one score greater than 0 on question #10 (I thought to hurt myself), in this case it may be likely that the mother is suffering a symptom of IM oppressive wholesale, which should receive greater attention. It is for thsis reason that these women must work in true psychological programs with the multidisciplinary team.9

When the disease has been diagnosed, the mother requires access to information that orients it with respect to the treatment and handling. Health professionals cannot forget that often the doubts surrounding the effects of drugs on the baby difficult maintenance of the same. For this reason, you must be available to resolve all of the concerns that may arise. Compliance with treatment is a critical factor in the success of therapeutic intervention, so it is essential to implement strategies that ensure adhesion. You have to erase the idea that all depression is going to need treatment. Light cases and even some moderates can be solved, basically, support social, family, brief psychotherapies or other forms of psychosocial intervention that may be performed by doctors in primary health care or organizations of the Community giving support to people.9‒13

Conclusion

  1. Priory women belong to the mestizo ethnic group, unmarried, with two children on average and full secondary education.
  2. To make the test of the scale of Edinburgh 38.5%, showed mild levels of post-partum depression, more however there is a significant percentage of women of present moderate levels, which can lead to complications in the same mental health besides a danger for babies in charge.
  3. This scale is significant and important to do it because it can be a means to help diagnose for professionals in mental health.

Acknowledgements

None.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflicts of interest.

References

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  6. British Journal of Psychiatry. Test of Edinburgh. 1987            .
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  8. Health NIoM. Information about Post-partum depression. Department of Health and Human Services of the United States. 2014.
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  10. Henderson J, Evans S, Straton J, et al. Impact of postnatal depression on breastfeeding duration. Birth. 2003;30(3):175‒80.
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