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Ecology & Environmental Sciences

Review Article Volume 9 Issue 2

Architectural culture and interaction Antonio Gaudi ve Frank Lloyd Wright

E Sibel Hattap

Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University,Vocational School, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Architectural Restoration Pr, Turkey

Correspondence: Assoc. Prof. Dr. E Sibel hattap, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University,Vocational School, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Architectural Restoration Pr. İstanbul, Turkey

Received: March 17, 2024 | Published: April 4, 2024

Citation: Hattap ES. Architectural culture and interaction Antonio Gaudi ve Frank Lloyd Wright. MOJ Eco Environ Sci. 2024;9(2):55-59. DOI: 10.15406/mojes.2024.09.00307

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Architecture, a universal profession, is a very important factor in creating the identity of a country or a city. It is an indisputable fact that architecture is an art and its impact on cultural legislation. As Frank Lloyd Wright said, "architecture is a life that has become a form", therefore it gives us extensive information about the lifestyle of a place. Among the works of art such as paintings and sculptures that carry the past to the present within historical continuity, the most permanent are architectural works. For example, structures such as the Egyptian Pyramids, the Coliseum in Rome, Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, the Suleymaniye Complex, and the Sears Tower in Chicago from our recent history have left their mark on their location, made them known and wondered all over the world, and have also become the symbol of the city they are located in.

In this study, architectural culture and its effects will be examined by exemplifying the 20th century architects Frank Lloyd Wright and Antonio Gaudi and the cities that bear traces of them, such as Chicago and Barcelona.

Antonio Gaudi (1852-1926)

He is a famous Spanish architect who was the pioneer of the Art Nouveau movement in Spain. He is the creator of Barcelona's most famous architectural works.

He was born on June 25, 1852 in Reus, Catalonia. He is the son of a copper master. His architectural education, which he started in 1869, lasted eight years due to military service and various reasons. The city of Barcelona, where he completed his education in 1878, became the center of all his artistic activities and played a major role in the development of his personality. That period was a period in which the middle class was strengthened, wealth and urban development increased, especially with the development of the textile industry in Barcelona. Gaudi was influenced by the theories of the British thinker John Ruskin, who said "ornamentation is the source of architecture". Over time, he moved beyond the dominant historical styles of the 19th century and created his own aesthetic that is difficult to classify.

Antonio Gaudi is one of the most debated people in architecture. While there are those who see him only as a sculptor, not an architect, there are also those who praise him as an architect. Famous surrealist painter Salvador Dali said about him, "The only architect the world has produced is Antonio Gaudi." and about himself, "I am the only painter the world has produced." It may be difficult to believe the first sentence because of the second sentence, but of course he said it with conviction. In Corbusier's eyes, 'Gaudi; He is the famous architect of stone, iron and brick, and the constructor of the 1900s.' His most famous work was the Sagrada Familia church, to which he devoted his entire life since 1914. The artist spent all his money on this project and died in a tram accident in 1926.

Gaudi's most important works:

  1. Fanals pleral (1878-1879)
  2. Casa Vicens (1878-1885)
  3. Finca Güell (1884-1887)
  4. Teresines (1888-1890)
  5. Palau Güell (1889-1891)
  6. Sagrada Familia ((1884-1926)
  7. Bellesguard (1900-192)
  8. Casa Calvet (1888-1904)
  9. Casa Batllo (1904-1906)
  10. Parc Güell (1900-1914)
  11. Casa Mila (La Pedrara) (1906-1910)
  12. Colonia Güell (1888-1915) (Figures 1–3)

Figure 1 (a,b): Parc Güell Architectural Model (1900-1914) (a-Nedim Hattap, 2018) and Parc Güell (b-Sibel Hattap, 2018).

Figure 2 Casa Batllo (1904-1906) (Sibel Hattap, 2018).

Figure 3 Gaudi's museum house and the furniture he designed (Sibel Hattap, 2018).

The Sagrada Familia construction site has been ongoing for 128 years and the Cathedral is planned to be completed and opened for worship in 2025 or 2030. The reason for this record is the principle that Gaudi set and bequeathed for construction; The construction is financed solely by donations and the support of the local Government of Catalonia.

When construction began in 1882, Sagrada Familia was designed as a neogothic cathedral.

When Antoni Gaudi became the chief architect in 1883, he changed the plans and worked on this project and construction with an unusual, unique method for 31 years until his death, and did not do any other work for the last 15 years.

Gaudi did not make plans or drawings in advance, he worked entirely with the 'improvisation' method when the time came. He tried to solve architectural and technical problems 'as they arose', and thought, designed and ordered the materials to be used 'when the need arose'. Therefore, since Gaudi's workshop was destroyed during the Spanish Civil War, the first projects and models were also lost. There is no 'main line' of construction. Architects continue the project by 'looking at what has been done so far'.

The Catalonian genius painter Salvador Dali suggested that 'Barcelona tram drivers should complete the construction of the Confessor's temple so that they can confess' after Gaudi died under a tram in 1926.

When the famous architect died, only one tower in his work was completed. But the Nativity facade and the basement were accepted as 'Gaudi's Work' and were included in the world cultural heritage list by the United Nations in 2005 (Figures 4–8).

Figure 4 Plans of Sagrada Familia (Sibel Hattap, 2018).

Figure 5 The architectural office of the fictional Gaudi located in the Sagrada Familia (Sbel Hattap, 2018).

Figure 6 (a,b): The Passion of the Christ façade of Sagrada Familia, completed in 1980 (a-Sibel Hattap , b-Kaan Hattap, 2018).

Figure 7 Three(a,b): Sagrada Familia (a-Sibel Hattap , b-Nedim Hattap, 2018).

Figure 8 Model workshop inside the Sagrada Familia (Sibel Hattap, 2016).

Unfortunately, Gaudi did not write a single book, a single article, or left any written documents. He did not give a single lecture during his life. He revealed the principles of his theory and all the lessons he wanted to give through his works. The known sentences of him are recorded by his employees and friends:

"The more tired my body gets, the more lively and free my thoughts become."

''When necessary; Unity must be sought in diversity.”

"When I see people dying, I believe in immortality."

“Sculpture is not a single moment of a movement. "It is an action from top to bottom."

"Color is a part of life."

''An architect is a person who can reach clear and accurate syntheses, whose forms are clear, and who can be visualized as a whole in his imagination before realizing them. "Only in this way can the interrelationships of the various elements and the plastic effect of the whole emerge."

Casa Mila

Casa Milâ, also known as La Pedrera (Stone Quarry), was Gaudi's last work before dedicating himself to Sagrada Familia, and is the biggest innovation he brought to the architecture of the city.

Built between 1906-10, La Pedrera was the subject of heavy criticism and ridicule from intellectuals because it contradicted the building principles of its time.

Gaudi designed this eight-storey apartment building around two circular courtyards in the corner; He built the city's first underground car park in the basement. Intricate ironwork balconies designed by Josep Maria Jujol resemble seaweed among the wave-like white stone walls. There are no straight walls anywhere in the building.

The Mila family, who gave the building its name, lived in one of the apartments on the first floor. Tours start from one of the offices on the ground floor; After visiting one of the apartments, it is time to visit the roof, which contains pipes and chimneys called espantabruixes (witch scarecrows) due to their spooky appearance (Figure 9) (Figure 10).

Figure 9 Casa Mila (La Pedrara) (1906-1910) (Sibel Hattap, 2016).

Figure 10 Casa Mila (La Pedrara) (1906-1910) (Sibel Hattap, 2016).

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 - 1959)

Frank Lloyd Wright, who was influential in bringing a new look to architecture at the beginning of the 20th century with more than 300 buildings he realized, put forward the principles of an architecture called "Organic Architecture", which is based on the integration of interior and exterior space based on natural forms, and developed the usage areas of reinforced concrete into modern architecture. He went down in history as one of the most important figures in the history of architecture. The Guggenheim Museum of Modern Art, which he designed in New York, has proven his architectural power to the whole world.

Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the most important architects of the 20th century, was born on June 8, 1867 in Wisconsin. Wright, who studied engineering, began to gain professional experience with designers such as Conover and Silsbee in his youth. In 1888, he started to work alongside Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler and began to be included in important projects. Wright played an important role in the construction of the Charnley House in Chicago, which was built in 1892. Wright, who learned very important lessons from Sullivan during this study, had the opportunity to closely examine the extreme individualism of writer Henri David Thoreau and the naturalism of Thomas Jefferson.

Wright, who was greatly inspired by Ruskin's Arts and Crafts and Violet le Duc, was also greatly influenced by names such as Richardson, Bruce Price and McKim, Mead & White. At the beginning of his work, Wright had difficulty adapting to the "Ecole des Beaux Arts", that is, the fine arts style, and his work reflecting this period is known as the Milwaukee Library. However, he later tried to symbolize the independence of American culture by adopting a completely anti-classical and anti-European approach. The name of this style is known as "Organic Architecture".

F.L., who was always against skyscrapers. In 1956, Wright proposed a 1-mile-high, 525-story skyscraper across the lake in Chicago. The daytime population would be 130,000 people, the lower 15 floors would be used as a garage, the elevators would be entered from each of the 5 ground floors and would be a 5-storey high block, going up to the upper floors with auto speed in one minute.

It is possible to find Wright's ideas summarized in his advice series titled "Young man in architecture".

  1. Forget about the architecture in the world, except for those who are good in their own time and in their own way.
  2. Anyone among you who does not love architecture as a working principle, who does not do architecture for architecture's sake, who does not embrace it as much as his mother, his friend or himself, should not be an architect.
  3. Avoid architecture school that is not close to engineering.
  4. In order to build modern buildings, enter every area where you see the machine and its methods, or only carry out simple building construction until you succeed in designing buildings that suit the nature of the construction.
  5. From the beginning, try to get into the habit of thinking about the reasons for everything you like or dislike.
  6. Do not describe anything as beautiful or ugly, but consider every point of every building and investigate every feature.
  7. Acquire the habit of analyzing, which will create the habit of synthesizing.
  8. As my old master said, “simplify”, I mean divide the whole into simple parts and return to the first principles. Do this in an orderly manner, going from the general to the parts, do not mix. Otherwise they will confuse you.
  9. Abandon the American idea of "money should return quickly". It is better to die as if you were an architect, rather than sell the architect's fundamental right to the public by doing "half-baked" work in the market...
  10. It takes time to prepare. For an architect who wants to rise above the average in the field of real architecture, a ten-year preparation period is only sufficient.
  11. To build the first building, go as far away from your current city as possible. Doctors bury their own faults, but architects can only advise their clients to grow grapes.
  12. Consider building a cathedral or a chicken coop with the same enthusiasm. In art, the size of the project is of little importance, other than the money it will bring. What really matters is the quality of the character revealed. The quality of a small thing can be great, or the quality of a big thing can be small.
  13. Do not enter the competition under any circumstances other than the apprenticeship period. No competition in the world has produced anything of architectural value. The jury itself is an average community. The first job of the jury is to take out the best and the worst among all the projects, leaving the averages behind. The definitive outcome of each competition is to choose the average from the averages of the averages.
  14. Beware of plan sellers, anyone who uses you for their own benefit is a treacherous customer. Since we are all talking about a higher level and better unity, may your ideal of honesty be so high that even the greatest ambitions in life will not separate you from honesty, and may your forehead always be open. Let your ideal of honesty be so high that even you cannot fully reach it.

Just as he could not adapt to the 19th century in which he was born, he died before he could adapt to the 20th century in which he lived. According to Wright, who sees one line less and five lines more where three lines are necessary, decoration should not be done for one's own pleasure, but should be in a way that increases the effect of the architectural composition.

Wright's basic idea is this: A building should not be on a plot of land, but should be part of the land (Figures 11–13).

Figure 11 Frank Lloyd Wright House and Studio, Oak Park,USA, (Sibel Hattap, 2010).

Figure 12 Frank Lloyd Wright House Oak Park,USA, (Sibel Hattap, 2010).

Figure 13 ThreeFrank Lloyd Wright Studio, Oak Park, USA, (Sibel Hattap, 2010).


Some architects leave their mark on the city or country they live in with their works. Antonio Gaudi and Frank Lloyd Wright, two of the 20th century architects, are among these architects. In the study, Mimar Sina, the architectural genius who built particularly monumental structures in Turkey in the 16th century, is one of these architects. Even though their views are different, the common feature of all these architects is the contribution they make to the place they live. These works, each a cultural heritage, contribute to their countries not only in terms of architecture but also in terms of tourism (Figure 14).

Figure 14 Suleymaniye Mosque (Mustafa Cambaz).

Louis Kahn, one of the famous architects of the 20th century, said after visiting the Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, "To learn Sinan the Architect thoroughly is to learn half of architecture." "Your students are luckier than my students in Philadelphia, because they are among Sinan's works in Istanbul," he said (Figure 15).

Figure 15 Istanbul Hagia Sophia and Topkapi Palace silhouette (Mustafa Cambaz).

Le Corbusier, another famous architect of the 20th century, went on a 7-month trip with his backpack and sketchbook in 1911: Prague, the banks of the Danube, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey... He wrote under a sketch he drew in Istanbul: 'Byzantium. Walls, Sultanahmet Mosque, Hagia Sophia, Topkapi Palace…. Come, you city builders, make a note in your file 'SiLUET' (Prof. Gündüz Özdeş Lecture Notes).





Conflicts of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest as regards this study.


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  2. İspanya. Görsel Gezi Rehberleri. Dost Yayınevi, 2012.
  3. Prof. Gündüz Özdeş lecture notes.
  6. Sibel, Kaan, Nedim Hattap archives.
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