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eISSN: 2573-2935

Addiction Medicine & Therapy

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 1

Studies of common goods and governance of resources

Javier Carreón Guillén

Professor “B” UNAM-ENTS, Mexico

Correspondence: Javier Carreón Guillén, PhD. in Administration from the UNAM, Professor “B” UNAM-ENTS,Mexico

Received: September 07, 2017 | Published: January 11, 2019

Citation: Guillén JC. Studies of common goods and governance of resources. MOJ Addict Med Ther. 2019;6(1):13-23. DOI: 10.15406/mojamt.2019.06.00141

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In the context of sustainable development, governance of water resources turns out to be a management model that would include factors relating to beliefs, attitudes, values, norms, perceptions, skills, knowledge, decisions and actions oriented water availability and consumption 200 standard liters per day. However, studies on the psychology of sustainability warn that availability is not only mediated cognitive dimensions, but are also determined by the relationship between local authorities and users of municipal services. In this sense, the present work is proposed to specify the relationship between cognitive factors to establish a model for the study of policies tandem as an effect of the surrounding information in the media about drought, natural disasters, environmental disasters or water conflicts. To this end, a review was conducted in databases with registration ISBN and DOI considering the above constructs. Referring to the state of knowledge, the model specification was discussed.

Keywords: studies on the psychology, attitudes, values, norms, perceptions, skills, knowledge, decisions


From an economic perspective, the Sustainable Development of water in Mexico, Federal District, by a system of rates that have been adjusted as water availability has increased from 300 liters per day per person with a unit cost of, 025 pesos in 1950 is indicated 120 liters per day per capita in 2000 when it reached an average of 50 pesos per volume of bi-monthly consumption.1 However, the collection system has been questioned by the psychosocial approach which advierteuna series of conflicts for water service and rates.2 From the perspective of psychology of sustainability, the media by emphasizing the conflicts between local authorities and users of public drinking water influence public opinion.3 In this sense, systems theories, technological, informational and communicational have advanced the hypothesis of setting the agenda from the analysis of the frame of the facts to reveal as producers of information to the media, as mediator to the opinion citizen and targeted policy initiatives law.

This letter presents the picture of water availability in reference to human consumption to contrast the enfoqueeconómico against psychosocial approach to highlight conflicts arising from supply policy and the local collection, conceptualise and discuss its impact on public opinion and in the lifestyles of users. Once the axes of debate and analysis thereupon established the reflective relations favourable to the sustainability of water resources and services specified behaviour. If the media presented the conflict as central themes of the hídricaya problems they blame the authorities for inefficiency rates and expose closures avenues, boycotts facilities or kidnappings of pipes as evidence of ungovernability that inhibit the development Local sustainable, then: What is the proposal of the media for the sustainability of the supply system and considering their frames collection of facts? The conceptualization of the role of the media contribute to the discussion about the role of the media, authorities and users as actors oriented water sustainability in the demarcation agenda. The methodology used for documentary research is to search for information in DIALNET, LATINDEX and REDALYC from keywords; , Sustainable Development, Local Development, conflict, water resources availability and rates, governance that were published from 2010 to 2014

Natural resources

Water is considered as a resource, it has been administered by degree of availability and supply. Thus, water resources to be assumed as a public good pose environmental contingencies arising from climate change that will transform the provisions of users; if they are well regarded private resources, then the system of tariffs, subsidies and grants central comoelementos highlights public policy. Finally, if they are considered common property, then both aspects, fees and contingencies delineate the supply of communities, and not from the equitable distribution, but from participation, lead generation, capacity and accountability.4

However, water resources are assumed to be private tend to accentuate the economic asymmetries between indigenous peoples and residential cities, excluding migrants sectors. If they are considered public goods, then will generate an imbalance between supply and demand will force the state to subsidize those who cannot afford the value of water. Therefore, if you are assumed to be common property, then the moral system of trust, empathy, commitment and solidarity move the unit price value of water.5

It is necessary to raise water resources, according to the theoretical, conceptual and empirical frameworks are social and political resources. This is because a resource management involves consensus for the common good, collective health or local sustainable development. In this sense, water is no longer just a resource that can be private, public or common, but rather under the capabilities of generations in the future depend on a minimum availability of water is therefore a resource socio-political, a management tool that vulnerable, marginalized or excluded sectors are requested to negotiate with the authorities in order to ensure the needs of their descendants.6 Therefore, environmental scenarios of socio-political resources warn that water availability and management agreed depends on the effects of climate change on environmental public health, quality of life and social welfare.

Thus, to the extent that the shortage of water resources is accentuated and the water is reduced to a minimum, the excluded adopt styles of austere life that prevent contingencies shortages and conflicts over water management, the increase fares or around government discretion grant or remission of fees.7 In the case of health scenarios, water resources assumed as social and political, are instruments of social pressure for implementation of prevention and health promotion programs, and although behaviours associated with health risks involving consumption basins are also generated polluted water bodies overexploited or illegal connections. In the area of conflict, marginalized groups are accused by political actors to participate depending on the supply and demand of local water. It is a tandem system in which the volume of water distribution is under civil participation in the elections, promoting political party or candidate for popular post. In this sense, water is a socio-political resource, a management tool, conflict, consensus, management and social  responsibility, but as a management tool endogenous  development  encourages social and political competition is supporting candidates who offer regularize tandem system rather than to manage water in a way that ensures sustainability and not the conflict between the marginalized sectors.

Global and local water issues involved share the imbalance per capita consumption and availability. In this asymmetrical relationship, the charging system restores balance, but as the differences between those who pay with subsidies and those who can afford its excessive cost8 intensifies. However, the distance between availability and consumption warns that in developed countries the per capita volume is oriented to residential and industrial use, while most of the demand is oriented to agriculture in emerging countries.9 Referring to Brazil, Spain and the United States, Mexico increased water volume used for agriculture, but residential use is second only to Brazil. Regarding the volume of water for industry, Mexico occupies the last place, but unlike the US where it is recycled, its intensive use has no treatment.10 Regarding the analysis by country, Mexico has greater volume availability among selected countries of the OECD, but ranks seventh in terms of per capita water consumption. Compared to Denmark that is in the past availability and consumption sites, Mexico has a gap between the availability and consumption as overexploited aquifers and does not follow the policy of sustainability of Denmark.

The imbalance between the available volume and water consumption has generated a collection system in Mexico that varies depending on the region, although the degree of population density, the problem is concentrated in the capital of Mexico. Indeed, local water problems can be inferred from the substantial increase in the collection of water services. Over a period of 15years, the unit price of water increased by 400% implying the exclusion of sectors that earn less than $2 a day and facing the loss of purchasing power of wages was devalued by 200%. In short, local water problems is to 1) imbalance between availability and consumption indicated by overexploitation of aquifers and 2) the exponential increase in tariffs and subsidies that exacerbate the differences between sectors. However, both aspects are linked to public policy in tandem, grants and remissions that are implemented as welfare programs to reduce conflicts between rulers and ruled.

Theory of sociopolitical resources

The sociopolitical resources: studies have focused on its conceptualization, training, activation, accessibility, structure, function prediction, change, inoculation, identity and ambivalence.The social and political resources have been defined from emotional and rational dimensions. Both dimensions are the result of experiences and expectations. This implies its structure: one-dimensional or multidimensional that is set to exogenous and endogenous factors. That is, when activated socio-political resources decisions and behaviours cause a peripheral, emotional, spontaneous, Heuristic and ambivalent process. In contrast, when the social and political resources transmit the effects of values and beliefs about the intentions and actions, they are endogenous mediators of a central process, rational, deliberate, planned and systematic. The formation of social and political resources starts from four basic psychological processes 1) extraversion, 2) neuroticism, 3) psychologism and 4) emotionality that would indicate levels of anxiety about shortages and water shortages. Once activated these symptoms would be anticipated psychosocial scenarios.

If the social and political resources generate states of anxiety and emotion that decentralize the problem of scarcity and shortages of water of individuals and their rational economic processes, then psychosocial factors be located conflicts over water management at the conformists versus innovative groups.11 These are groups that stick their expectations to public policies versus dissident group’s tandem programs, payment systems, subsidies or remissions. Such differences are based on the sense of belonging those natural resources in general and water resources in particular generated in a local setting of sustainable development.12 Thus, the sense of community generates stereotypes from which are expected to settle conflicts over management of groundwater, distribution through pipes or central supply outlets. The categorization not only distinguishes the groups, but also justifies such differences regarding fees for use of natural resources and public services.13 However, the sense of belonging to an environment and attachment to a place of origin is guided by symbols, meanings and senses that in a historical context highlighting its importance in endogenous development. The sense of belonging is often symbolized by the natural resources that allow the progress of a group in a given space. The social categorization points out the ownership and management of the resources emanating from the spaces considered as symbols of the community. In both cases, a sense of belonging and categorization, there is a relationship linking the core with peripheral representations of water, their uses and customs.14

In both processes, core and peripheral representation, socio-political processes that transform resources in general and water in particular symbols of power and influence between conflicts of groups seeking management or self-management they are revealed. Socio-political resources that begin as indicators of anxiety and psychological emotionalism, passing through psychosocial processes of belonging, categorization, representation and identity, but take a socio-political sense by way delos habitus, field and capital legitimizing reproduction dela social domination.15 The identity that is the culmination of psychosocial factors is a conglomeration of decisions and choices not always rational and more emotional in which the individual in need of water is decanted by the action of a group with respect to water supply. Thus, the water socio-political identity refers to the actors of cooperation and solidarity among groups suffering the tandem versus groups that have a regular supply of water.16 However, psychosocial processes do not explain how the differences between groups legitimize and spread among group members through membership. The habitus explains the transfer of concrete actions water saving, optimization and reuse legitimizing shortages and tandem in the excluded sectors.17





Corral, Garibaldi and Encinas

They found, in an exploratory study of frequencies household water around the use of the shower, the main activity of domestic water consumption. In contrast, the use of refrigerant was the home device with less frequent use in both study samples.


Corral and Obregón

They conducted a systematic review of the variables included in the models of pro-environmental behavior.They proposed to factors situations, pro-environmental skills, styles and ecological reasons as the determinants of pro-environmental behavior.


Corral and Zaragoza

They showed, through a system of equations STRUCTURAL four dimensions recycling behavior which was determined by the reasons for reuse. In this model, the household size and economic status also had an impact on behavior. However, beliefs through the motives influenced the behavior of reuse. They established significant differences between men and women regarding their knowledge reuse and recycling of products.These significant differences were also observed around the beliefs of reuse and recycling beliefs.


Hernandez and Landázuri

They established a difference between proportions of nonparametric data, six categories: (1) image and institutional identity, (2) physical and built environment, (3) solid waste, (4) hazardous waste, (5) management of electricity and ( 6) environmental training. Later, in 1998, with another stratified sample of 466, the image of the campus, solid waste and environmental training remained major problems.


Acosta y Montero

They showed significant associations between responsible environmental behavior and locus of control, knowledge of environmental action, environmental skills and coping styles. They set associative, positive and significant relationship between knowledge of environmental action and responsible environmental behavior.To the extent that increased values of a variable other values they increased. They demonstrated that responsible environmental behavior is associated (r=.45; p<.05) with the index of skills and knowledge of environmental action.


Oceja and Jimenez

They conducted three studies. They evaluated a group of standards, analyzed their compliance classified and established a set of rules. They showed in the first study that the typology is relevant from three criteria (personal agreement, formal sanction and social disapproval). In the second, they established differences between the rules (the legitimate laws and regulations are met greater extent than illegitimate laws and convictions) using compliance criteria informed and perceived. In the third established significant differences between attitudes toward each type of standard.


Barreiro, Lopez Losada and Ruzo

They established through a cluster discriminant analysis and cluster of Euclidean distances, six groups differentiated by type of ecological consumption; Skeptics, carefree, institutional, drifters, social and clueless.


Guevara and Rodriguez

They showed a tendency to respond positively and homogeneously into the garbage separation and collection services.


Negron, Arias and Delbrey

They showed significant differences between men and women regarding the change of their knowledge back to information regarding their knowledge about their health and the environment.



He demonstrated by a structural model, the incidence of domestic utensils on water consumption. In this model, motives, and skills shortages, had a negative effect on water consumption.


Cold, Lopez and Diaz

They showed the indirect effect of macro-system on antisocial behavior through the micro-system. In the structural model, the exo-system was indicated by three indicators and micro-system for five manifest variables.


Bustos, flowers and Andrade

They demonstrated the direct, positive and significant relationship among three variables pro-environmental behavior; washing bathrooms with toiletries (r =.17; p<.01), teeth cleaning staff bathroom (r=.18; p<.01).The relationship among four variables conservation; beliefs obligation to conserve water saving instrumental skills (r=.24, p .01), knowledge management water protection reasons socio-environmental (r=.42; p<.01) and instrumental skills savings with protection reasons socio-environmental (r=.27; p<.01). the relationship of seven pro-environmental factors; beliefs obligation to care the water with internal locus of control (r=.43; p<.01), with water saving (r=.45; p<.01), with the reasons of environmental protection (r=.24; p<.01), with the perception of risks to health (r=.26; p<.01), turn the perception is related to the internal locus of control (r=.30; p<.01), with pro-environmental behavior (r=.23; p<.01) and with environmental protection grounds (r=.27) which in turn are linked to the locus of control (r=.28; p<.01), with water saving (r=12; p<.01) and instrumental skills (r=.42) will in turn are linked to the locus of control (r=.38 ; p<.01) and saving water (r = .33; p <.01). Finally, knowledge of water management are associated with the locus of control (r=.16; p<.01) and the pro-environmental behavior (r=.47; p<.01). They showed the indirect effect of internal control beliefs and knowledge on pro-environmental behavior. In this trajectory prediction, beliefs obligation to conserve water, risk perception, social and environmental protection reasons and transferred instrumental skills such impact


Corral and Pinheiro

They established six dimensions of sustainable behavior on austerity, anticipation, altruism, effectiveness, deliberation and savings. They showed positive and significant associations between dimensions. Subsequently in a structural model, they demonstrated the reflectivity of sustainable behavior around the six aforementioned dimensions.



It showed that both water pollution and water scarcity risks are perceived as non-experts both people as experts who assess risks objectively.


Fraj and Martinez

They demonstrated the moderating effect of environmental knowledge on the causal relationship between emotional, verbal and real commitment. To the extent that environmental awareness was minimal, the causal relationship and the percentage of variance were low. In contrast, when the level of environmental knowledge was specialized, causal relations and variance explained incrementaban significantly.


Meinhold & Malkus

They self-efficacy correlated with environmental attitudes (r=.23), with environmental knowledge (r=.16) and the pro-environmental behavior (r=.30), environmental attitudes environmental knowledge (r=.18 ) and the proambiental behavior (r = .45), environmental knowledge with pro environmental behavior (r=0.34) all with lower significance .001



Established by a structural model, the indirect effect of attitude, past conduct, control and personal standard on pro-environmental behavior through intention. In this structure, the past behavior was the main determinant of environmental performance.


Corral, Frias, Fraijo and Tapia

They found significant differences between sex and age with respect to risk appetite, including sex, age and education regarding the lack of self-control, between sex and age with respect to antisocial behavior and between sex and age with respect to the anti-environmental behavior. They established positive and significant associations between risk appetite and lack of self-control, antisocial behavior, anti-environmental behavior, including the lack of self-control and anti-social and anti-environmental behavior, including antisocial behavior and anti-environmental behavior. They showed negative associations between pro- environmental behavior and the risk appetite and lack of self-control.


Cerda Garcia, Diaz and Nunez

They demonstrated the direct effect between environmental protection on consumer behavior environment-friendly green products and promoting environmental culture, the causal relationship between promoting environmental protection on the environmental performance of the environmental auditor and environmental cultural promoter.



He found significant differences between the dimensions of pro-environmental behavior; recycling, saving, cleaning, activism, consumption and desirability with respect to the type of company. It showed that the values of transcendence are key determinants of proenvironmental behavioral dimensions.


Corral, Fraijo and Tapia

They showed five dimensions of water consumption for the use of sink, shower, watering and cleaning.Subsequently, they established by a structural model, the incidence of ecological and utilitarian beliefs about drinking water. Both beliefs negatively correlated.


Milfont, Andrade, Belo and Pessoa

They established positive associations between negative hedonistic past with the present, past and present positive fatalistic. The hedonistic present with the positive past and present fatalistic. The last positive with this fatalistic. In contrast, the present hedonistic negatively correlated with the future and this with this fatalistic.


Arreguin, Roman, Laborin, Moreno, April and Valenzuela

They established significant differences between groups spenders and savers of water with respect to knowledge, beliefs, norms, attitudes, intentions and abilities.


Corral, Tapia, Fraijo and González

They established ten dimensions of sustainable behavior on perception of environmental standards, appreciation for nature, pro-environmental outrage, affinity for diversity, deliberation, fairness, altruism, proecologismo, austerity and self-presentation.


Frias Rodriguez and Corral

They demonstrated, using a structural model, the effect of the social norm on the anti-environmental behavior.In this system of equations, deterrence and personal rule had less or no adverse behavior on environmental impact.


Harranz, Proy and Eguiguren

Through a model of trails, the intention established as the main determinant of recycling behavior. In the system of equations, indirectly they influenced beliefs about recycling and the intention was transmitting variable.


Orostegui and Matos

The upper stratum (62kg/person/day) generated less waste than middle strata (74kg/capita/day) and low (77kg/person/day) and compared to the district average (71kg/person/day ). Organic matter, followed by paper and cardboard were the prevailing municipal waste. In this regard, the upper stratum recycles waste generated.



He found that the media are the main source of information and knowledge of environmental problems. He also established as a synonym for consciousness to knowledge and knowledge of the environment. Regarding teacher training, were the main knowledge gaps about ecological issues.



The actors involved in environmental governance generate conflicting information because they are actions which contravene agreements involving the management of common natural resources.


Fernandez, Porter and Neyra

They found differences between teachers and students regarding their learning environment. While students felt that their environment had a social relevance, teachers assumed the natural environment as the most important factor of development for their community.


Gissi and Soto

The appropriation of space is made from tequio that is the personal work performed by a member before entering the guatza or community work.


Hidalgo and Pisano

The attitude was related to knowledge (r=0.454, p=0.001), self-efficacy with the knowledge and attitudes (r=0.303 and r=0.882; p=0.001 respectively), the perception of risk with the knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy (r=0.475; r=0.589; r=0.547; p=0.001 respectively), the intention with the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, perception and intention (r=0.206; r=0.317; r=0.390 , r=0.382; p=0.001 respectively). The perception of risk was determined by the attitude (β=0.305; p=0.000) and the intention was influenced by self-efficacy (β=0.259; p=0.001).



They established three factors of the four possible dimensions. The first factor explained 46.4% of the variance while the second factor explained 28.6% of the variance and the third factor explained variance 25,15. They established differences between men and women [X2=10,088 (2gl) p=0.007], for years [X2=176.77 (8GL) p=0.000] and dwell [X2=21.657 (6GL) p=0.001]



62% agreed on a definition of cooperativism, 32% have a favorable attitude to collective work, but 35% disagreed to transform your business into a cooperative.



Politics and ideology of understanding perception negatively determined to knowledge about climate change and concerns about its impact on gender (β=-0.372 and β=0.336, respectively).


Molini and Salgado

Around the discussion of the differences between compact and scattered city, the population density is an important factor since the low concentration in the compact cities make it more sustainable than the scattered cities, but its high density increases the costs to the government entity charge of regulating it. Such a scenario affects the creation of family because they occur in communities with more than 500,000 inhabitants and press the availability of resources.


Montilla, Pernia and Rodriguez

The cooperative is a human and social system indicated by processes of self-construction, self-production, self-organization and self-poiesis.


Pasco, and Villafuerte Neyra

They showed that the level of technical knowledge -normativo around the National Program on Climate Change was minimal among those responsible for making decisions and train volunteers who will carry out environmental preservation actions.


Schoon, Cheng, Gale, Batty and Deary,

Attitudes towards social liberalism were determined by education (β=.25). turn attitudes factor was composed of anti-racism manifest variables, social liberalism and gender equity (.45, .57 and .47 respectively).



The main source of information on climate change were television news (23.9%), food and beverages consumed by the sample (83.8%), foci were the object used to fight the change climate (88.7%).


Corral, Mireles, Tapia and Fraijo

They established through a structural model [χ2=144.36 (85gl) p<0.001; NNFI=0.97; CFI=0.97; RMSEA=0.03; R2 conduct pro-ecological=0.52] the influence of sustainable behavior on happiness (0,31). The determining factor was reflected by four dimensions; frugality, fairness, altruism and pro- ecological behavior (0.42, 0.35, 0.66, 0.72 respectively).


Flowers and Parra

He established the significant differences between density, activity, education, income and use of water relative to saving occasional, systematic and absent water.


Gaxiola, Frias and Figuerero

They established through a structural model [χ2=14.6 (5GL) p<<0.01; BBNFI 0 0.90; BBNNFI=0.86; CFI=0.96; RMSEA=0.04; R2=0.05] five factors reflecting protective factors. The latent variable included the factor k (0.65), exosystem (0.27), microsystem (0.79), ontosystem (0.64), parenting (0.22).



It systematized reorganization plans from a logic of exclusion and inclusion. The first was to differentiate spaces; privatization of goods and services. In contrast, the second proposal was to establish connections between sectors, space and services to reduce spatial segregation. The logic of inclusion involves network design in which each node is interconnected with each other and allows the interplay between spatial elements and the construction of an urban identity that promotes tolerance of diversity.


Marquis, Salavarría, Eastmond, Ayala, Arteaga, Marquis,
Valladares and Manzanero

They found an average level of knowledge regarding the general and specific environmental problems referring to their attitudes and behaviors.


McCright and Dunlap

Beliefs about the effects of climate change zero determined confidence in white men with conservative ideology (γ=0.82; p=0.000). Meanwhile basic political ideology determined the denial of the effects of climate change (γ=0.47, p = 0.000), race determined the belief about the lack of consensus on the effects of climate change for conservative white (γ=0.38, p=0.000), however, sex negative impact on the beliefs of the null effects of climate change on respondents base (γ=-0.67; p = 0.000) as well as identification with the environmentalism on the same belief in the same group (γ=-0.81; p=0.000).


Nacif and Espinosa

They found a relationship between national identity and pragmatism urbanist central spatial reorganization and architectural designs. The buildings represent symbols of national reconstruction that would spread to other pamperas and South American cities; Brazil, Peru, Colombia and Venezuela. The architectural proposals of the time posed a greater mobility from east to west trying to integrate the periphery to the center. Thus, the field would be articulated with the city and water systems could have a greater advantage, although the mining region increasingly away from public services. In such a scheme, the railways were fundamental to incorporate primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. Therefore, the wineries were to be transferred into the agro-industrial areas. Because the city was devastated by an earthquake and shelter spaces were no or insufficient, recreational parks that met seismic and recreation projected spatial function. To prevent clumping of transport, construction of an arc proposed. Regarding the local reorganization, creating neighborhoods of 15 blocks in spaces leased guaranteed the sociospatial state control. Other proposals consisted concentrate citizenship in multicultural areas to prevent segregation. Two issues were fundamental: environmental conservation and privatization of the territory.



Tourism policy will encourage the connection between bioceanic and peri-urban corridors. For this purpose the desirable scenario will consist of a road network that links both areas. Such a strategy will increase the competitive advantages in tourism, technological and commercial services in the region.



The bankruptcy of the mill generated a emprenedurismo on farmers and employees decided to manage the company after the conflicts between the actors were resolved with the expropriation within the framework of neoliberalism.



The sense of environmental responsibility direct, positive and significant savings for domestic and residential water determined. Emotional affinity towards the environment had an impact on residential municipal solid waste management.


Spence, Portinga, Butler, Pidgeon

Disaster prevention perceived influence on reducing energy consumption (β=0.371) as well as experience flooding determined the perceived local vulnerability (β=0.421).


Touginha and Pato

The environmental performance correlated with age (r=0.30) while ecocentric beliefs related to universal values (r=0.20). Meanwhile age and universal values determined ecological behavior (β=0.24, β=0.21, p=0.001 respectively).


Zapata and Castrechini

They found significant differences among residents of nearby areas regarding neuroticism, extraversion and recycling. In this study, personality traits were not significantly associated with pro-environmental behavior recycling.


Carr, Patterson, Yung and Spencer

Respondents agreed that their religious beliefs are closely related to the effects of climate change while skeptics expressed confidence in scientific and technological rather than religious solidarity to the problem of global warming advances.


Corral Garcia, Tapia and Fraijo

They established through a structural model [χ2=540.80 (243gl) p<0.001; BBNNFI=0.93; CFI=0.94;RMSEA=0.06; R2=0.35]. The factor of sustainable behavior included four factors; altruism, proecologismo, frugality and equity (0.74, 0.75, 0.64, 0.74 respectively) while the restoration factor included welfare, fascination, extension and compatbilidad (0.61, 0 99; 0.94; 0.99 respectively).



He found a degree of risk perception in Buenos Aires when migrating to the periphery residents. In this sense, the perception of habitat is related to services and investment that the state has focused on the centrality.Another factor is perception of housing space socialization since a change of neighborhood involves the loss of social capital. The rent is a phenomenon closely related to the expectations of appropriation of space as a good root guarantees the permanence in the neighborhood and the establishment of a higher quality of life. The proximity of housing has led to the development of a spatial identity that increases reciprocity and even the changing environment.



Four indicators were the symbiotic; accessibility. Mobilization, exchange and appropriation. In the first, the pedestrianization public strategy is to dilute segregation and encourage the inclusion of visitors in events public squares. In the second, the spaces are equipped with furniture that allows the coexistence and exchange of ideas for symbolic appropriation of space. Public transportation is based in these spaces and it facilitates the transit passage pedestrian or recreation. In the third, the church building, city hall, banks, restaurants and other businesses facilitate social exchange. Finally, the appropriation of space is the result of accessibility, mobilization and exchange. The public squares are meeting places, coexistence, trade, transportation and recreation.


Fraijo, Corral, Tapia and Garcia

They established correlations between environmental psychological factors. Austerity correlated with deliberation (r=0.311; p=0.001) and skills (r=0.382; p=0.001). Deliberation with altruism (r=0.415; p=0.001), with the propensity to future (r=0.390; p=0.001), with beliefs (r=0.336; p=0.001) and equity (r=0.302 ; p=.001). Altruism with beliefs (r 0.279; p=0.001). The pro-environmental behavior skills (r=0.291; p=0.001). The propensity to future belief (r=0.323; p=0.001) and skills (r=0.321; p=.001). The reasons with beliefs (r=0.207; p=0.001) .



They established differences between ethical and unethical and indecisive regarding its concern (F=102.52; p=0.000), risks (F=51.68; p=0.000), consensus (F=26.83; p=0,000 ), efficiency (F=34.67; p=0.000), responsibility (F=69.41, p=0.000). Environmental intentions were determined by beliefs (β=0.506).


Moyo, Mvupm, Kunzekweguta, Mazvipavf, Crawford, and Dorward

Perceived rain cycle was the phenomenon that most remind farmers (72%), while winter (1%) was the least remembered event. The four stations were remembered as the phenomena of major change (23%), finally climate change was identified as the main cause of perceived changes (53%).


Poortinga, Spence, Demski and Pidgeon

Personal rules determined the size of the carbon demand and supply of alternative technologies (β=0.51 and β=0.41 respectively). In turn beliefs about climate change had an impact on personal norms (β=.59).meanwhile the environmental identity determined beliefs climate change (β=.55)


Sahin, Hamide and Teksöz

The favorable environmental behavior was explained by attitudes toward the same (β=.67). Where appropriate, the provisions to the behavior in favor of sustainability was determined by the tendency to follow the media (β=.12), but were also explained by age (β=-.65).


Urquieta and Campillo

They established a relationship between economic resources and social stratification with respect to the representation of the city. The lower classes to the centrality perceived as an unsafe area. The middle classes were concerned pro expansion of the city and its effects on the environment. Regarding the expectations they expressed an ideal city in which the spaces allow coexistence as an element of inclusion; recovery of spaces, tranquility and enjoyment. Regarding the right to the city that was represented as a scenario of freedom where access to employment, education and universal health are indispensable.


Yahya, Hashemnia and Rouhi

The attitude correlated with the consumption of green products (R2=0.457). The standard related to attitudes (R2=0.48) with the attitudes perceptions (R 2 = 0.43) and consumer attitudes (R2=0.54)


Beck, Sinatra and Lombardi

The perception of knowledge correlated with concern (r=0.556), responsibility (r=0.443; p=0.000), the concern with the responsibility (r 0.528; p=0.000) and with responsibility for dissemination (r=0.228 ; p=0.000), personal responsibility with education (r=0.290; p=0.000), predictions of students with their knowledge (r=0.496; p=0.000), the responsibility for education with feelings of comfort ( r=0.529; p =0.000). They established differences among students in science, engineering, business, health, arts, and education (v Cramer=0.0001), responsibility (v=0,000), feelings of comfort (v=0,000) and teaching (v=0,000).


Corral et al.

The virtues were shaped by factors humanism, justice and valuation (0.97, 0.98 and 0.94), while sustainable behavior included factors altruism, pro-environmentalism, frugality and equity (0,63, .62, .79 and .74). The virtues of humanity determined sustainable behavior (β=0.67).


Corral, Tapia, Ortiz and Fraijo

They established through a structural model [χ2=641.82 (201gl) p<0.0001; BBNFI=0.91; CFI=0.92;RMSEA=0.06] two factors of first order and sustainable behavior virtues, which had a positive correlation (0.67), included three factors (humanity, justice and moderation) second order for the case of the virtues (0,97 ; 0,97; 0,94 respectively) and four (altruism, pro-ecology, frugality and equity) second order for the case of sustainable behavior (0,63; 0,69; 0,79; 0,74) .


Cunsolo, Harper, Ford, Edge, Ladman, Houle, Blake, and Wolfrey

Climate change is intuitively related to the welfare and community identity. In this regard, respondents attribute spiritual relationships with their environment. Welfare is linked to the relationships that respondents establish with their surroundings and powers to the surrounding elements. Health is represented by the identity and the environment generates attribution. The emotions that flow to climate change are depression, fear, frustration, devastation and stress to threats of ecological balance of the environment and the community. In the case of depression, the community reported a high incidence in substance abuse and suicidal ideation.Besides the impact it is magnified when considering that future generations will suffer further adverse effects of climate change in their community environment. However, the community also began to develop cooperation strategies aimed at prevention and civil protection. Resilient actions of self-care and self-management of public health were observed.


Dasaklis and Pappis

The literature reviewed attaches greater importance to climate change in the productive and administrative processes. Mainly in the design of processes and operations that reduce the impact of climate change on the environment. It is an environmental liability arising from a green agenda, but established from minimizing operating costs.



Monitoring of competitiveness was positively associated with the number of cluster (r=0.62).


Cold Corral

They established through a structural model [χ2=197.15 (71gl) p<0.001; BBNFI=0.90; BBNNFI=0.91;CFI=0.93; RMSEA=0.007; R2=0.67] to the individual characteristics of offenders as determinants of anti social behavior (0,62). In turn the latter were determined by domestic violence (0.42) and social environment (0.41). Individual features were formed by anxiety (0,84), opposite behavior (0.68), ADHD (0.85), depression (0,67), inattention (0.84), low empathy (0.47) and low self-control (0,53) and anti social behavior included anti-socialization (0,76), aggression (0.99) and deviation (0.98)



Community tourism, unlike other types of tourism, is sustainable, because it solves the current needs while protecting the environment without compromising the ability of future generations.


Tapia, Corral, Fraijo and Duron

They established through a structural model [χ2=382.3 (243gl) p<0.0001; NNFI=0.93; RMSEA=0.003; R2=0.57] prediction of happiness from sustainable behavior (0.17) and this from behavioral intention (0,76). In turn, sustainable behavior was determined by the pro-ecological behavior (0.80), frugality (0.66), equity (0.45) and altruism (0.41). Finally, the intention was influenced by indignation (0.26) and affinity (0.34).


Vinneta and maharaja

Self-tracendencia positively and significantly related to attitudes toward himself (0.73).


Wendling, Attari, Carley, Krause, Warren, Rupp and Graham

Income preferences determined action on climate change (β=0.977; p=0.000).

Table 1

However, the habitus is generated in spaces or areas of power and influence. In this sense, those who organize themselves to manage a water body learn to negotiate with other groups the distribution of water from aquifers rights. In the process of formation of habitus in contexts austerity capital are essential for strengthening frugal life styles, but also legitimize the policy of local sourcing. Collaborative management networks, hoarding and distribution of water in a locality involve skills and abilities that are generated from the rectory of the state in opportunities of water extraction and social responsibility expected to consider water resources as socio-political factors of local development. However, psychological, psychosocial and socio-political scenarios are insufficient to understand the consensual management of water resources in government and forms of authoritarian and democratic state regimes.

Theory of governance of socio-political resources

In the context of the social and political resources, exalts an internal process of governance known as governance, unlike the guidance of the State in the administration of public resources and services, is the emergence of civil proposals, debates and consensus of responsibility Social. The theory of governance of socio - political resources not only lies in the equitable relationship between authorities and citizens, but also involves the emergence of austere life styles that indicate the response of civil society to government administration. This process has evolved during three political, authoritarian and democratic scenarios Governance of socio-political resources in terms of political systems, is growing in the authoritarian and totalitarian regimes because these freedoms are subject to the guidance of the State, guarantor of territorial security and resources. In authoritarian and totalitarian systems, water is part of a territory and as such is protected by the absolutist state, but unlike traditional, transitional or democratic regimes, communities develop a sense of belonging or social representation that legitimizes water distribution in communities regardless of their identities.

However, coercive systems of freedom exacerbate civil proposals in this regard is that authoritarianism and totalitarianism generate governance, but especially conducive to communities to build a sense of belonging to the environment, since the loss of steering increases ethnocentrism communities. In the Praetorian or civil courts, they are authoritarian governance systems that accentuate stereotypes towards authorities and legitimate differences between sectors with respect to the asymmetric distribution of resources. But the sense of community, coupled with the social representation of abundance or scarcity of water are factors of dissent that are reduced to a minimum after they have been legitimized the asymmetries between groups with regular and irregular supply. Therefore, the choice of a group involves water management. Feat civil participation from those who support or dissent natural resource managers, who manage the supply, those controlling the reuse or treatment of waste water and those who encourage local development.

In these scenarios, governance emerges as a way to legitimize management differences over water use rights management and waste management. It is a political system in which the players resolve their differences, establish agreements and rules issued consumption. Unlike authoritarian regimes in democratic systems and water management involves establishing an agenda from the information dissemination of conflicts among vulnerable, marginalized and excluded groups. Thus, in parliamentary democracies water is a central theme, as tariffs, subsidies and grants are scattered among those who represent the communities, but in the presidential system, the power of initiative and veto, regulates water conflicts and disputes between users of drinking water.

As part of the transformation of the state and bureaucracy, emergencies pose citizen participation governance is an administrative system in which two actors deprived rulers and ruled according to degree of conformity or innovation. In the first case, management is determined by domination and social control over political power spread over civilian areas.18 In this sense, the consensus is established from the coercion of collective action and social mobilization exposed in the media as obstacles to the construction of public peace, agreements and conventions that underpin structural reforms. By contrast, governance established by way of innovation suggests the participation of citizens as key player in both the execution and design of social and environmental policies and programs. In this process, the influence is the instrument by which the topics for discussion are established, agreements are conceived and opportunities, abilities and civil responsibilities around the design of strategies for inclusion and right to resources and services are geared urban.

In the case of the governance of water resources and services, the conflicts generated by the imbalance between availability and consumption are considered scenarios of scarcity and shortages compared to that municipal policies establish systems of tandem and collection in order to reduce the differences between rulers and ruled. However, according to the degree of supply and cost of the unit price of water, water conflicts acquire an unequal dimension that can scale to a conflict of equitable order when authorities and users agree deprovision or compromising the ability of future generations. Rather, the distributive inequality can be lessened through conflicts involving the social deterrence around the breach of regulations between users sharing resources, or subsidies to persuade the most radical rule out violent acts such as avenues closures, kidnappings of pipes or boycotts hydraulic installations.

Thus, the tariff increase does not necessarily correspond to the actual cost of water services,19 but rather derived from deterrence strategies consumption,20 but are also tools subsidy the more radical sectors identified as its capacity for mobilization and confrontation with the authorities.21 Related subsidies, waivers are an instrument that enables the public peace and subsequent renegotiation with those vulnerable, marginalized or excluded sectors that spend up to 20% of their income for water. Result of unequal conflict monopolies supply units known as pipes exacerbate the differences between those who have a regular supply and pay a slightly higher price and those under a regime of tandem and are exposed to the disproportionate increase in the unit price. In this scenario, lifestyles are more coercive because there is a double post tandem exclusion policy is known as hoarding water in areas of high marginality. In contrast, governance that would be born from conflict and agreements sample management   capabilities, consumption   and   water   treatment   waste    while    there are mechanisms for citizen participation and negotiation with local authorities regarding the cost of service and recycling.20 These styles of consensual life in which users pay more than representing the service price, but are assured of a regular supply, although this administrative modality can lead to monopolies organized sectors on peripheral areas suffer the water shortages. Regarding the dimension on deterrence as a means of water governance it would be indicated by the domination of managers to ensure the supply and maintenance of drinking water from exponentially increase tariffs or groups, delete subsidies or remissions.22 It is a scenario in which the media set the topics for discussion and legitimize tariff policies to public opinion.23 Even in this model of governance establishing a public agenda is preponderant factor for the exclusion of opinions in favour of cooperativism.24

Finally, the dimension on persuasion involves the promotion of civic values that guide environmental water saving, but without questioning the asymmetries between the consumption of agribusiness and residences. This is a precautionary strategy of natural disasters brought about by drought or floods devendrían in social instability and subsequent competition for water resources. Persuasions styles are to promote pro-life water conservation, although the rates are increased, generate inflation in the local economy. However, water management is inherent violence involving disagreements, lack of agreements, ambivalence and hostility as preponderant factors in relations between users and local authorities. The invisible violence involving xenophobic speeches about vulnerable minorities, marginalized or excluded seems to encourage subsidy policies to prevent demonstrations or violent actions, but also legitimize subsidies or remissions that the authorities can target as recruitment of militants.25

In contrast, violence by consensus implies not only the participation of all sectors, but also the exercise of majority power against the customs of migrant communities.26 This is a scenario in which the tariffs regulate the differences between residential, natives or migrants sectors from considering establishing a unit price per capita income, or the degree of human development. But the hostile violence on water supply and policies tandem is oriented towards those groups that close avenues, confronted with authorities involved hijack pipes or municipal supply. It is a policy of frontal combat crime that appropriates facilities under the emblem of the rights to the city and free water, but established trade networks of water in areas with lower availability and supply encouraging these users allocate up to 20% of their income on water. Finally, management of water resources would have an ambivalent dimension in those areas and sectors due to supply shortages and low cost of service. Indeed, his ambivalence is that the quantity and quality of water corresponds to its low cost and consumption, and therefore colonies living under constant stress because the state does not increase them the cost and improves their service.27 In short, governance of water resources is made up of four dimensions as relations between sectors and level of supply and unit price of water supply and treatment. Each dimension is considering a management conflict and foreseeable levels of violence by scarcity, desabastecimientoy cost.

State of knowledge of governance

The theory of reasoned action argues that attitudes are mediating the effect of beliefs about the intentions and behaviour. An increase in belief increases and specific provisions to decisions and deliberate actions. It is a process that usually goes in beliefs to the particular regarding intentions and actions. However, the predictive power of the general belief is bounded by the specificity and dimensionality of attitudes. Since attitudes convey the effect of beliefs, they define indicators in provisions likely to be carried out. Theory of Planned Behaviour warns that the effect of beliefs on behaviour is mediated by attitudes and perceptions of control. In a situation or contingent event, the perception of control increases its predictive power of intentions and behaviour if interacts with specific provisions. To the extent that the perception of control decreases, their relationship with attitudes makes a spurious predictable effect on decisions. Necessarily, the deliberate and planned decision making process and implementation of strategies requires a perception of control is with the provisions to the object.

If the governance of  water  resources  and  services  is  management  strategy  according to the degrees of conflict and violence gestarían from four dimensions of analysis ranging from inequality to consensus, then studies for the construction of agreements or asymmetries resolution deals with those processes inherent in management by their degree of civil participation would be close to the democratization of municipal services, but highlights the disconnect between residential areas, indigenous peoples and peri-urban migrants. Self-management is a social phenomenon that would explain collective action and social mobilization around droughts or floods that create the shortage would force the civil organization, but also an opportunity to market a staple through the hoarding of water.28 In this sense, the storage would be compromised because the system of tandem operates under a regular regime that is complemented by water storage rather than reuse, treatment or rainwater harvesting, indicators propensity future or behaviour-oriented sustainability.29

It is precisely at this stage in the system of tandem lost relevance since storage does not correspond with metered water use is a lifestyle-oriented rather than anthropocentric such as hoarding.30 Meanwhile, reuse would have a link with the dosage while once used water austere, a new use of it would be an alternative to the inefficiency of the tandem, but reuse rather is part of the enterprise involved marketing independent water quality and quantity.31

The price of service pipes, once the water has been used and is now intended to sell as of first use, or warns that has already been treated, filtered or processed, would be related to cooperative ways pipes or water vendors are organized, although the processing involves complex processing of water user would be willing to pay to organize a collective environmental protest.32 Sustainable behaviour that emerges as a result of a consensual management of water resources and services has been established as a major factor in predicting scenarios of conflict and violence as levels of favourable action on the environment decrease, but anticipate scenarios of peacemaking and cooperation at a time when participation levels increase dosage or actions intensify and reuse.33 However, a model of governance require more binding dimensions that anticipate the reappropriation of nature and not only its preservation for economic or political reasons, but its restoration by biofilia or ecoperiferismo as ideological factors with respect and permanent care to the environment and to in turn they indicate a transgenerational environmental and water culture.34


The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and empirical evidence warn that governance is a management system degree of conflict and levels of violence generated by the imbalance between availability and consumption system tandem and local recovery have not been able to stabilize and more well exacerbate water exclusion. In the specification of the governance model it is proposed that the revised asymmetries indicate a reappropriation of nature as cultural and transgenerational purpose, but there are critical positions rather by the deregulation of municipal services.

In the review of Jaen and Barbet,35 argues that human development, mainly volitional, is gestated from anthropocentric values that determine socializing with natural resources and municipal services through socio-political representations of conformity, obedience, indignation or violence. In this sense, the specification of the governance model should consider the formation of representations and habitus which could guide from childhood, care and preservation of resources without having to use violence, but under that communities develop representations and habitus ecoperiféricos, local development would socialization of empathy, trust, commitment and satisfaction with the environment rather than adjusting styles anthropocentric life to levels of water availability per capita. Meanwhile, the position of Londoño and Cardona36 about the opportunities and resources for human development, is conceived nature as a provider of tools for capacity building to encourage conservation, but set expectations and development needs. In this paper rather it assumes the state as interlocutor of civil society address the shortage of resources. Local Development, unlike the Human Development depends on community values and lifestyles rather than consumption principles.

Finally, in reviewing the environmental agenda Moreno37 argues that schemes of cooperation between nations are determining factors for the development of technology and knowledge generation resources that translate into opportunities for choice and transgenerational action. Regulated by carbon, human activities would access agreements to reduce emissions in order to ensure the sustainability of the model, but in this paper argues that governance does not lie in public policy, but in risk management, conflicts violence and subject to the continuing shortage of natural resources. Governance is determined by the global and local situation model, although its emphasis on the local level involves guidelines for international concert without excluding future generations or other species that coexist with human groups38 particularly with those communities to have a significant degree of identity and influence are the subject of consensus policies, programs, models and management strategies and self-management.39 The spread of the axes of discussion, agreements and responsibilities allow greater efficiency in the management of water resources and services as at least rates and the tandem will be based on the opportunities and capacities of communities rather than individuals.40 As the scarcity and shortages are the perceptual reach of users will intensify governance on risk reduction, conflict and violence. The study of governance dimensions is experiencing not only be related, but also anticipate scenarios of scarcity, shortage, conflict and violence to establish the axes of discussion, agreements and responsibilities among stakeholders.

The governance of water services involves the analysis of factors that reveal self- managed collective actions in situations of uncertainty or risk, but especially to prominent differences between the quantity, quality and price of water. Self- management is not only the result of a shortage, but is the product of citizen initiative through its mechanisms of influence generates supply options that allow you to anticipate adverse environmental or administrative scenarios (scenario 1). Unlike the state of knowledge where self-management is measured by the degree of reaction in the specification of this model it arises rather than being weighted by their degree of anticipation. Thus, the dosage of water is a result of the advance of the reaction rather than to drought or flood. These strategies derived from styles of preventive life rather than reactive, opportunities rather than threats, capabilities more rules and responsibilities rather than conventions (hypothesis 2), but a degree of meaning dosage is necessarily linked with a certain level of reuse because in a ecoperiférico system austerity it is more than a reaction identity.41–43

Thus, austerity encourages reuse because once that has been optimized water use, the next logical action is to extend its use to show future generations that is not enough to care for her or save her, but we must also enter into the daily dynamics as a factor of entrepreneurial identity (hypothesis 3 and 4). In these communities, the water to be considered as part of a cultural heritage does not have a cycle that defines it, but if symbols and meanings with a sense of belonging and rootedness to the environment. It is the ancestral cooperative that communities adopt as livelihood to incommensurability and unpredictability of natural disasters and environmental catastrophes (scenarios 5 and 6). In this sense, innovation is a course of action given the magnitude of the environment. Water governance in communities consist of the study and promotion of new ideas as a hallmark of the community to changes in the environment. Once the entrepreneurship and innovation are established, the following process is related to the biofilia that lies in predictive identity of the relationship between resources and communities with the aim of a reappropriation of nature, not as resources, but as heritage of the environment, species and groups that inhabit it (hypothesis 7 and 8). The governance of water resources and services is actually a management system knowledge and rationales that allow the replacement of the domination of nature by a sense of belonging, the exploitation of its resources for their conservation, but above all, replacing consumer lifestyles by an ideology of coexistence between resources and species.44,45


The contribution of this work to the theoretical and conceptual as well as the state of knowledge frameworks lies in the specification of a model of governance shortages, uncertainty, conflict and violence. In this sense, it is proposed that water resources due to their importance for everyday life, are instruments of opportunity, ability and responsibility between authorities and users. Thus, the model specification allows the study of the phenomenon from more than economic, socio-political or psychosocial health parameters.



Conflict of interest

Author declares that there is no conflict of interest.


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