Research Article Volume 3 Issue 6
^{1}Professor, CAET, OUAT, India
^{2}Ex student, CAET, OUAT, India
Correspondence: Subudhi CR, Professor, CAET, OUAT, Bhubaneswar751003, Odisha, India
Received: November 07, 2019  Published: December 26, 2019
Citation: Subudhi CR, Jena N, Suryavanshi S, et al. Rainfall probability analysis for crop planning in Rayagada district of Odisha, India. Int J Hydro.2019;3(6):507511. DOI: 10.15406/ijh.2019.03.00217
This study was under taken in the U.G. thesis work in the Dept. Of SWCE, CAET, OUAT, Bhubaneswar during the year 201819. Rayagada district has a total geographical area of 7584.7sq.km. Rayagada district has latitude of 26^{o}N and a longitude of 94^{o}20’E. The average rainfall at Rayagada district is around 1340.3mm, though it receives high amount rainfall but most of the rainfall occurred during kharif. So most of the crops get low yield due to improper crop planning. Thus, this study is proposed to be undertaken with the following objective: Probability analysis of annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall data of Rayagada district. So rainfall data were collected from OUAT, Agril Meteorology Dept. from 2001 to 2017(17years) monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall were analyzed .Probability analysis have been made and equations were fitted to different distributions and best fitted equations were tested. Monthly, Annual and seasonal probability analysis of rainfall data shows the probability rainfall distribution of Rayagada district in different months, years and seasons. It is observed that rainfall during June to Sep is slightly less than 1000mm and cropping pattern like paddy(110days) may be followed by mustard is suitable to this region. Also if the kharif rain can be harvested and it can be reused for another rabi crop by using sprinkler or drip irrigation, which will give benefit to the farmers. Annual rainfall of Rayagada district is 1340.3mm at 50% probability level.
Keywords: rainfall, probability analysis, crop planning
Rayagada district has a total geographical area of 7584.7sq.km. Rayagada district has latitude of 26^{o}N and a longitude of 94^{o}20’E. The average rainfall at Rayagada district is 1340.3mm, most of the rainfall occurred during kharif. Thus, this study is proposed to be undertaken with the following objective: Probability analysis of annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall data of Rayagada district.
Thom^{1} employed mixed gamma probability distribution for describing skewed rainfall data and employed approximate solution to nonlinear equations obtained by differentiating log likelihood function with respect to the parameters of the distribution. Subsequently, this methodology along with variance ratio test as a goodness offit has been widely employed Kar et al,^{2 }Jat et al,^{3} Senapati et al,^{4} and Subudhi et al.^{4} applied incomplete gamma probability distribution for rainfall analysis. In addition to gamma probability distribution, other twoparameter probability distributions (normal, lognormal, Weibull, smallest and largest extreme value), and threeparameter probability distributions (lognormal, gamma, loglogistic and Weibull) have been widely used for studying flood frequency, drought analysis and rainfall probability analysis.^{5} Gumbel^{6} Chow,^{7} have applied gamma distribution with two and three parameter, Pearson typeIII, extreme value, binomial and Poisson distribution to hydrological data. Sachan S et al,^{8} attempted probability analysis using the rainfall data of 30 years(19762005) in various influencing raingauge stations viz., Damoh, Hatta, Jabera and Deori falling in Bearma basin of Bundelkhand region, Madhyapradesh. Gumbel,^{6} Hershfield & Kohlar.^{9} Have applied gamma distribution with two and three parameter, Pearson typeIII, extreme value, binomial and Poisson distribution to hydrological data.^{10}
The data were collected from District Collector’s Office, Gajapati district for this study. Rainfall data for17years from 2001 to 2017 are collected for the present study to make rainfall forecasting using different methods
For seasonal rainfall analysis of Gajapati district, three seasons kharif (JuneSeptember), rabi (October to January) and summer (February to May) are considered. The data is fed into the Excel spreadsheet, where it is arranged in a chronological order and the Weibull plotting position formula is then applied. The Weibull plotting position formula is given by
$p=\frac{m}{N+1}$
Where m=rank number
N=number of years
The recurrence interval is given by
$T=\frac{1}{p}=\frac{N+1}{m}$
The values are then subjected to various probability distribution functions namely normal, lognormal (2parameter), lognormal (3parameter), gamma, generalized extreme value, Weibull, generalized Pareto distribution, Pearson, logPearson typeIII and Gumbel distribution. Some of the probability distribution functions are described as follows:
Normal distribution
The probability density is
$p\left(x\right)=\left(1/\sigma \sqrt{2\pi}\right){e}^{{\left(x\mu \right)}^{2}\u20442{\sigma}^{2}}$
Where x is the variate, $\mu $ is the mean value of variateand $\sigma $ is the standard deviation. In this distribution, the mean, mode and median are the same. The cumulative probability of a value being equal to or less than x is
$p\left(x\le \right)=1/\sigma \sqrt{2\pi}{\displaystyle \underset{\infty}{\overset{x}{\int}}{e}^{{\left(x\mu \right)}^{2}\u20442{\sigma}^{2}}}dx$
This represents the area under the curve between $\infty $ and x.
Lognormal (2parameter) distribution
The probability density is
$p\left(x\right)=\left(1\u2044{\sigma}_{y}{e}^{y}\sqrt{2\pi}\right)\text{}{e}^{{\left(y\mu y\right)}^{2}\u20442{\sigma}_{y}}$
Where y =ln x, where x is the variate,${\mu}_{y}$ is the mean of y and ${\sigma}_{y}$ is the standard deviation of y.
Lognormal (3parameter) distribution
A random variable X is said to have threeparameter lognormal probability distribution if its probability density function (pdf) is given by:
$\begin{array}{l}f\left(x\right)=\left\{{\scriptscriptstyle \frac{1}{\left(x\lambda \right)\sigma \sqrt{2\pi}}}exp\right\{\frac{1}{2}{\left(\frac{log\left(x\lambda \right)\mu )}{\sigma}\right)}^{\text{2}}\},\lambda <x<\infty ,\mu >0,\sigma >0@\\ 0,otherwise)\}\end{array}$
Where $\mu ,\sigma \text{\hspace{0.17em}}and\lambda $ are known as location, scale and threshold parameters, respectively.
Pearson distribution
The general and basic equation to define the probability density of a Pearson distribution
$p\left(x\right)=e{\displaystyle {\int}_{\infty}^{x}\frac{a+x}{{b}_{0}+{b}_{1}\text{}x+{b}_{2}\text{}{x}^{2}\text{}}}dx$
Where $a,b0,b1and\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b2$ are constants.
The criteria for determining types of distribution are ${\beta}_{1},{\beta}_{2}and\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k$ where
${\beta}_{1}=\frac{{\mu}_{3}^{2}}{{\mu}_{2}^{3}}$
${\beta}_{2}=\frac{{\mu}_{4}}{{\mu}_{2}^{2}}$
$k=\frac{{\beta}_{1}{\left({\beta}_{2}+3\right)}^{2}}{4\left(4{\beta}_{2}3{\beta}_{1}\text{}\right)\left(2{\beta}_{2}3{\beta}_{1}6\right)}$
Where ${\mu}_{2},{\mu}_{3}and{\mu}_{4}$ are second, third and fourth moments about the mean.
Logpearson type III distribution
In this the variate is first transformed into logarithmic form (base 10) and the transformed data is then analyzed. If X is the variate of a random hydrologic series, then the series of Z variates where
$z=\mathrm{log}x$
Are first obtained. For this z series, for any recurrence interval T and the coefficient of skew ${C}_{S}$
${\sigma}_{Z}$ = Standard deviation of the Z variate sample
=$\sqrt{\left(\sum {\left(z\overline{z}\right)}^{\text{2}}/\left(N1\right)\right)}$
And ${C}_{S}$ = coefficient of skew of variate Z
=$\frac{\sum {\left(z\overline{z}\right)}^{3}}{\left(N1\right)\left(N2\right){\sigma}_{z}^{3}}$
$\overline{z}$ = mean of z values
N= sample size = number of years of record
Generalized pareto distribution
The family of generalized Pareto distributions (GPD) has three parameters $\mu ,\sigma and\xi $ .
The cumulative distribution function is
${F}_{\left(\xi ,\mu ,\sigma \right)}\left(x\right)=\left\{\begin{array}{c}1{\left(1+\frac{\xi \left(x\mu \right)}{\sigma}\right)}^{\frac{1}{\xi}}for\text{}\xi \ne 0\\ 1exp\left(\frac{\left(x\mu \right)}{\sigma}\right)for\text{}\xi =0\end{array}\right\}$
For $x\ge \mu $ when $\xi \ge 0$ and $x\le \mu \frac{\sigma}{\xi}$ when $\xi <0$ ,where $\mu \in R$ is the location parameter, $\sigma >0$ the scale parameter and $\xi \in R$ the shape parameter.
The probability density function is
${f}_{\left(\xi ,\mu ,\sigma \right)}\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{\sigma}{\left(1+\frac{\xi \left(x\mu \right)}{\sigma}\right)}^{\left(\frac{1}{\xi}1\right)}$
Or
${f}_{\left(\xi ,\mu ,\sigma \right)}\left(x\right)=\frac{{\sigma}^{\frac{1}{\xi}}}{{(\sigma +\xi \left(x\mu \right))}^{\frac{1}{\xi}+1}}$
again, for $x\ge \mu $
, and $x\le \mu \frac{\sigma}{\xi}$
when $\xi <0$
Generalized extreme value distribution
Generalized extreme value distribution has cumulative distribution function
${f}_{\left(x;\mu ,\sigma ,\xi \right)}\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{\sigma}{\left[1+\xi \left(\frac{x\mu}{\sigma}\right)\right]}^{\left(\frac{1}{\xi}1\right)}\mathrm{exp}\left(\left[1+\xi {\left(\frac{x\mu}{\sigma}\right)}^{\left(\frac{1}{\xi}\right)}\right]\right)$
For $1+\xi \left(x\mu \right)/\sigma >0$ , where $\mu \in R$ is the location parameter, $\sigma >0$ the scale parameter and $\xi \in R$ the shape parameter. The density function is, consequently
${f}_{\left(x;\mu ,\sigma ,\xi \right)}\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{\sigma}{\left[1+\xi \left(\frac{x\mu}{\sigma}\right)\right]}^{\left(\frac{1}{\xi}1\right)}\mathrm{exp}\left(\left[1+\xi {\left(\frac{x\mu}{\sigma}\right)}^{\left(\frac{1}{\xi}\right)}\right]\right)$
Again, for $1+\xi \left(x\mu \right)/\sigma >0$
Gumbel’s method: The extreme value distribution was introduced by Gumbel^{6} and is commonly known as Gumbel’s distribution. It is one of the most widely used probabilitydistribution functions for extreme values in hydrologic and meteorological studies. According to this theory of extreme events, the probability of occurrence of an event equal to or larger than a value ${x}_{0}$ is
$P\left(X\ge {x}_{0}\text{}\right)=1{e}^{{e}^{y}}$
in which y is a dimensionless variable and is given by
$y=\alpha \left(xa\right)$
$a=\overline{x}0.45005{\sigma}_{x}$
Thus $y=\frac{1.2825\left(x\overline{x}\right)}{{\sigma}_{x}}+\mathrm{0.577......}$ …….. (i)
Where $\overline{x}$ = mean and ${\sigma}_{x}$ = standard deviation of the variate X. In practice it is the value of X for a given P that is required and such Eq. (i) is transposed as
${y}_{p}=\mathrm{ln}[ln(1p)]$
Noting that the return period $T=1/P$ and designating ${y}_{T}$ =the value of y, commonly called the reduced variate, for a given T
${y}_{T}=\left[\mathrm{ln}.\mathrm{ln}\frac{T}{\left(T1\right)}\right]$
Or ${y}_{T}=\left[0.834+2.303\text{}log\text{\hspace{0.17em}}log\text{}\frac{T}{\left(T1\right)}\right]$
Now rearranging Eq. (i), the value of the variate X with a return period T is
${x}_{T}=\overline{x}+K{\sigma}_{x}$
Where $K=\frac{\left({y}_{T}0.577\right)}{1.2825}$
The above equations constitute the basic Gumbel’s equations and are applicable to an infinite sample size (i.e. $N\to \infty $ ).
The various parameters like mean, standard deviation, RMSE value were obtained and noted for different distributions. The rainfall at 90%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 10% probability levels are determined. The distribution “best” fitted to the data is noted down in a tabulated form in Table 1. In the present study, the parameters of distribution for the different distributions have been estimated by FLOOD frequency analysis software. The rainfall data is the input to the software programme. The best fitted distribution of different month and seasons and annual were presented in Table 1.The annual rainfall in 50% probability was found to be 1340.3mm for Rayagada block of Odisha. During Kharif at 50% probability level, the rainfall is 1066.2mm where as only125.9mm and 136.0mm was received during rabi and summer respectively. In the present study, the parameters of distribution for the different distributions have been estimated by FLOODflood frequency analysis software. The rainfall data is the input to the software programme. The best fitted distribution of different month and season and annual were presented in Table 1. The annual rainfall in 50% probability was found to be 1340.3mm for Rayagada district of Odisha. During Kharif at 50% probability level, the rainfall is 1066.2mm where as only125.9mm and 136.0mm was received during rabi and summer respectively.
Months 
Best fit Distribution 
RMSE Value 
Rainfall at probability levels 



90% 
75% 
50% 
25% 
10% 

January 
EV typeIII 
0.05662 
 
 
 
13.15 
32.85 
February 
Pareto 
0.04265 
 
 
 
 
10.64 
March 
Exponential 
0.0577 
 
 
11.44 
34.43 
64.84 
April 
Gamma 
0.06436 
 
 
22.92 
68.44 
130.69 
May 
Gumbelmax 
0.03242 
1.11 
35.5 
73.41 
119.17 
170.71 
June 
Weibull 
0.0447 
65 
115.44 
190.89 
283.75 
379.27 
July 
Pareto 
0.05212 
119.24 
166.98 
262.77 
397.94 
532.8 
August 
LogNormal 
0.03976 
161.14 
219.33 
308.98 
435.3 
592.76 
September 
LogNormal 
0.03585 
93.91 
135.02 
202.16 
302.71 
435.47 
October 
Pareto 
0.03324 
 
8.18 
81.85 
182.44 
278.02 
November 
Pearson 
0.04999 
 
 
3.79 
25.12 
51.87 
December 
Pareto 
0.06214 
 
 
 
 
30.06 
Annual 
Pareto 
0.05995 
1022.03 
1131.26 
1340.3 
1610.28 
1846.79 
Kharif (JuneSept) 
Pareto 
0.0567 
699.38 
830.75 
1066.2 
1335.35 
1532.34 
Rabi (OctJan) 
LogPearson 
0.03913 
 
52.26 
125.9 
219.57 
313.53 
Summer (FebMay) 
Pearson 
0.05757 
54.78 
86.47 
136 
202.89 
279.36 
Table 1 Rainfall analysis of Rayagada district at different probability levels for different months and seasons
In the present study, the parameters of distribution for the different distributions have been estimated by FLOODflood frequency analysis software. The rainfall data is the input to the software programme. The best fitted distribution of different month and season and annual were presented in Table 1. The annual rainfall in 50% probability was found to be 1340.3mm for Rayagada district of Odisha. During Kharif at 50 % probability level, the rainfall is 1066.2mm where as only125.9mm and 136.0mm was received during rabi and summer respectively, so water harvesting structures may be made to grow crops during rabi and summer to utilize the water from the water harvesting structures to increase the cropping intensity of the area. It is also observed that at 75% probability level the June, July, Aug and Sept received more than 100 mm, so farmers of these area can grow crops in upland areas suitably paddy can be grown followed by any rabi crop in rabi season like mustard or kulthi in upland areas. In Figure 1 the plot between different months and amount of rainfall in different probabilities were shown, It is observed that September month gets highest amount of rainfall compared to other months. Figure 2 shows the different cropping pattern in Rayagada district as per the rainfall available in different weeks.^{11‒16}
Forecasting of rainfall is essential for proper planning of crop production. About 70% of cultivable land of Odisha depends on rainfall for crop production. Prediction of rainfall in advance helps to accomplish the agricultural operations in time. It can be concluded that, excess runoff should be harvested for irrigating postmonsoon crops. It becomes highly necessary to provide the farmers with highyielding variety of crops and such varieties which require less water and are earlymaturing in Rayagada district of Mahanadi command area of Odisha. It is also observed that at 75% probability level the June, July, Aug and Sept received more than 100 mm, so farmers of these area can grow crops in upland areas suitably paddy can be grown followed by any rabi crop in rabi season like mustard or kulthi in upland areas. Annual rainfall of Rayagada district is 1340.3mm at 50% probability level. It is observed that September month gets highest amount of rainfall compared to other months. Different cropping pattern selected may be may be practiced in this district.
None.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
None.
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