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eISSN: 2575-906X

Biodiversity International Journal

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 4

Field evaluation of extra early maize varieties in two agro ecological zones of Nigeria

Olaiya AO,1 Oyafajo AT,1 Atayese MO,1 Bodunde JG2

1Department of Crop Physiology and Crop Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria
2Department of Horticulture, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria

Correspondence: Olaiya AO, Department of Crop Physiology and Crop Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

Received: March 22, 2019 | Published: July 25, 2019

Citation: Olaiya AO, Oyafajo AT, Atayese MO, et al. Field evaluation of extra early maize varieties in two agro ecological zones of Nigeria. Biodiversity Int J. 2019;3(4):156?160. DOI: 10.15406/bij.2019.03.00140

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Abstract

Low yield of maize has been attributed to low soil N since maize requires high Nitrogen for optimum productivity. Field study was conducted in the late season of 2014 at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Research Farms, in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition) and Mokwa (southern guinea savanna) zones to evaluate the effects of split Nitrogen fertilizer application on growth and yield of extra early maize. The experimental arrangement was 5 x 8 factorial fitted into Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times. Five extra early maize varieties and eight rates of Nitrogen fertilizer were used in all treatment. Data collected on growth and yield parameters were subjected to Analysis of Variance procedure and significant means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at p<0.05. Results showed that maize variety 2013 TZEE-W DT STR at both locations had significant higher number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, cob dried yield and grain yield at both locations. Split application of N fertilizer of 90 kg N ha-1 as (60:30) at 2 and 4 WAS produce significantly (p<0.05) higher 1000 grain weight, grain yield and dried cob yield at Mokwa and Ibadan respectively. The control plot produced significantly reduced dried cob and grain yield in Mokwa and Ibadan by (85, 81%) and (84.4, 80.4%) respectively compared to the best rate of 60:30 split N application. Mokwa (Southern guinea savanna) zone proved to be a favorable location for higher yield of extra early maize varieties. The study concluded that application of N in two split doses at (2 and 4 WAS) as 60:30 kg N ha-1 on extra-early maize is recommended for achieving optimum grain yield in both locations. The 2013 TZEE-W DT STR is the best variety in terms of growth and yield of maize at the two locations and is hereby recommended.

Keywords: maize, ecology, grain yield

Introduction

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important cereal crop in the world after wheat and rice and the most important cereal in Nigeria in terms of production and consumption. Maize is a renowned field crop in all the agro-ecological zones of West and Central Africa (WCA).1 During the last two decades, production of maize have not coped with population growth due to several reasons includes low soil fertility which is the principal factor, little or no use of improved seed, herbicides, fertilizers, inad­equate plant density, weed infestation, poor tillage practices, labour shortages, increased levels of biotic and abiotic constraints, and high costs of inputs are some of the constraints associated with maize production.2

Maize is usually considered to have a high soil fertility requirement to achieve optimal yields3,4 and thus large quantities of N is required. Nitrogen being the most yield limiting nutrient, its stress reduces grain yield by delaying plant growth and development.5 Maize is a nitro-positive and needs ample quantity of nitrogen for its better production.6 However, production is still seriously constrained by low soil fertility especially Nitrogen. Efforts aimed at obtaining high yield of maize would necessitate the augmentation of the nutrient status of the soil through a suitable application technique when it is most efficient and effectively utilized to meet the crop’s requirements for optimum productivity and maintain soil fertility. These studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of split N fertilizer application on growth and yield of extra early maize varieties.

Materials and methods

The experiment was conducted during late season of 2014 planting season in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition) and Mokwa (southern guinea savanna) zones. Land preparation was done mechanically first and second ploughs, harrowed and marked with mechanical marker of 0.75m inter-row spacing. A factorial experiment fitted into randomized complete block design was used for both locations. The treatment were 5 varieties x 8 fertilizer rates making 40 treatment combinations replicated four times; three row planting of 5m long with inter-row spacing of 0.75mx0.25m intra-row spacing. The plot size was 5m x 2.25m with total experimental area of 90mx27.5m (2475m2). Basal application of P and K at rates equivalent to 30 kg P2O5 and K2O ha-1 respectively were made at time of first N application.

The following parameters were collected plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, stem girth, cob yield (t ha-1), 1000 seed weight (g) and grain yield (t ha-1). Growth parameters were taken at 4 and 8 weeks after sowing (WAS). 

Grain yield per heactare (t ha-1):

Grain yield was estimated using the formula7 Field Weight ( kg/plot ) x ( 100GMC ) x 80/100    85 × 10,000  0.25 x 0.7521  MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdPi=BHaVhbbf9v8 qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9 q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaake aajuaGqaaaaaaaaaWdbmaalaaak8aabaqcLbsapeGaaeOraiaabMga caqGLbGaaeiBaiaabsgacaqGGcGaae4vaiaabwgacaqGPbGaae4zai aabIgacaqG0bGaaeiOaKqbaoaabmaak8aabaqcLbsapeGaae4Aaiaa bEgacaGGVaGaaeiCaiaabYgacaqGVbGaaeiDaaGccaGLOaGaayzkaa qcLbsacaqGGcGaaeiEaiaabckajuaGdaqadaGcpaqaaKqzGeWdbiaa igdacaaIWaGaaGimaiabgkHiTiaabEeacaqGnbGaae4qaaGccaGLOa GaayzkaaqcLbsacaqGGcGaaeiEaiaabckacaaI4aGaaGimaiaac+ca caaIXaGaaGimaiaaicdacaqGGcGaaeiOaiaabckaaOWdaeaajugib8 qacaaI4aGaaGynaaaacqGHxdaTjuaGdaWcaaGcpaqaaKqzGeWdbiaa igdacaaIWaGaaiilaiaaicdacaaIWaGaaGimaiaabckaaOWdaeaaju gib8qacaaIWaGaaiOlaiaaikdacaaI1aGaaeiOaiaabIhacaqGGcGa aGimaiaac6cacaaI3aGaaGynaiaabIhacaqGGcGaaGOmaiaaigdaca qGGcaaaaaa@82A9@

Where:

Fw =field weight of ears at harvest

Gmc=grain moisture content (%)

0.8=shelling coefficient of maize (100-15)= 15% moisture in grain at dry state 10,000m2 = harvested area conversion into standard unit (ha)

The planting materials used were five cultivated extra early maize varieties comprising of striga tolerant maize varieties obtained from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, (IITA). Data collected was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures according to the methods described. Treatment means were separated using the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability.8

Results and discussion

Pre-cropping soil physiochemical properties analysis; the result showed that the soil used for field trials for both agro-ecology is sandy soil in texture, medium to slightly acidic soil, low in total Nitrogen (N), medium in available phosphorus (P). As result of its low essential macronutrients the soil can be regarded as a poor soil for maize production. The pH of 5.7 and 6.0 was moderate for maize production (Table 1). Very low in total Nitrogen (N of 0.09, 0.04kg-1 of soil is less than the critical level of 1.5kg-1, while the available phosphorus (P) of 8.7, 10.3mgkg-1 exceeds the critical level of 8.10mgkg-1. The pH of 6.0 was moderate for maize production (Table 1).

Soil Properties

Ibadan

Mokwa

Sand (%)

92

90

Silt (%)

3

5

Clay (%)

5

5

Textural class

sandy

sandy

pH

6

5.7

Ca (cmol kg -1)

21.4

13.4

O.C (%)

1.2

0.35

Mg (cmol kg-1)

1.9

0.8

Na (cmol kg -1)

0.4

0.3

K (cmol kg -1)

0.2

0.2

 AL + H (cmol kg -1)

0.1

0.1

ECEC (cmol kg -1)

30

20.1

 Base Sat (%)

99.7

99.5

Total N

0.09

0.04

Av.P (ppm)

8.7

10.3

Cu (ppm)

1.6

0.9

Mn (ppm)

57.5

180

Fe (ppm)

136

59

Zn (ppm)

4.7

9.5

Table 1 Pre-cropping soil physico-chemical properties for both locations, 2014

The data presented in Table 2, showed that maize varieties respond differently to Nitrogen fertilizer rates applied for both locations. Split N application rates greatly enhanced the performance of extra-early maize varieties in the various growth parameters measured. Application of nitrogen fertilizer produced significantly higher number of leaves, taller plants height, wider leaf area and thicker stem girth when compared with 0 kg N/ha. Application of 120kgN/ha split (60:60) applied at 2 and 4 WAS produced the highest number of leaves and widest leaf area when compared to other treatments in both locations. The tallest plant height and thickest stem girth was produced with the application rate of 90kgN/ha split (60:30) applied at 2 and 4 WAS. This result is an indication that higher levels of nitrogen fertilizer promote the vegetative growth in maize and its deficiency reduces the vegetative growth of maize. This agrees with Onasanya et al.,9 who reported higher application rate of 120 kgN/ha to produced the highest number of leaves. Also, Roth et al.,10 Paradkar et al., 11 reported that higher nitrogen rate promotes vegetative growth in maize. Similar results that plant height increases with increasing levels of fertilizers were reported.12–14 But these results are contrary to those of Jones15 who reported that time of application of N had no significant effect on maize plant characters. The least value for leaf area, number of leaves, plant height and stem girth was recorded in the control plot with 0kgN/ha. This result agrees with Tweneboah16 who earlier established that nitrogen deficiency retarded growth of maize and resulted into stunted growth and poor root development. For maize varieties, the highest plant height, widest leaf area and the thickest stem girth recorded for variety 2013 TZEE-W DT STR at 8 WAS could be attributed to their genetic make-up. It was also reported by Msarmo et al.,17 that cultivars grown under the same conditions may have differences in their performance based on the genetic characteristics. 

Treatments

 NL

 PH

 LA

 SG

Mokwa

Ibadan

Mokwa

Ibadan

Mokwa

Ibadan

Mokwa

Ibadan

Varieties (V)

2013 TZEE-W DT STR

11.8a

13.4a

178.3a

184.8a

524.3a

550.5a

2.47

2.57a

2013 TZEE-Y DT STR

10.5c

12.1c

172.7b

178.7b

448.6c

471.1c

2.31

2.39b

TZEE-W Pop C5

11.0b

12.5b

170.7b

176.5b

463.6c

486.7b

2.4

2.47ab

TZEE-Y Pop C4

11.1b

12.7b

173.3b

179.3b

463.2b

486.3b

2.42

2.52a

99 TZEE-Y STR QPR

10.9bc

12.5b

165.6c

171.1c

460.3bc

483.3bc

2.45

2.53a

S.E (+)

0.12**

0.13**

1.68**

1.82**

4.24**

4.45**

NS

0.06*

Urea Rate (R)

0kgN

6.8f

8.4f

115.3g

119.2g

361.7f

379.8f

1.69e

1.74e

30kgN

8.9e

10.5e

149.6f

156.0f

431.1e

452.7e

2.02d

2.10d

30:30kgN

11.8c

13.3c

179.6c

185.9c

490.4c

514.9c

2.67b

2.76b

60kgN

9.5d

11.0d

170.6d

176.7d

468d

491.4d

2.79b

2.89b

60:30kgN

13.0b

14.3b

217.5a

 223.7a

508.1b

533.5b

3.13a

3.24a

30:30:30kgN

12.0c

13.6c

176.7c

183.3c

470.3d

493.8d

2.66b

2.76b

60:60kgN

13.7a

15.3a

205.5b

211.6b

540.5a

567.5a

2.20c

2.28c

30:60:30kgN

12.9b

14.5b

162.2e

168.3e

505.9b

531.2b

2.13cd

2.21cd

S.E (+)

0.16**

0.17**

2.13**

2.30**

5.36**

5.62**

0.05**

0.07**

Varieties x Rate

S.E (+)

0.38*

0.38*

4.76*

5.15*

11.98*

12.58*

0.11*

0.11*

Table 2 Effect of split N application rate on growth parameters of maize
WAS = Weeks after sowing, *, ** = Significant at 0.05 and 0.01 level of probability, respectively Mean followed by the same letter(s) within the same column and treatments are not significantly different

Amendment of soil by nitrogen fertilizer, irrespective of rates or period of application produced significantly better yield than 0kgN/ha. The data presented in Table 3, showed higher number of cobs at 60kgN/ha single applied (55.20 x 103 and 51.60 x 103) in both Mokwa and Ibadan respectively, while the lowest number of cobs produced was in the control plot (28.13 x 103 and 29.2 x 103) for both locations respectively. This result indicate that increase in N application do not show increase in number of cobs produced and environment did not have any effect on number of cobs produced in both locations, though mokwa agroecology brought about higher number in cob produced. The higher number of cobs experienced with N fertilizer application over the control may be due to the availability of Nitrogen nutrients throughout the growing season which is essential for optimum maize growth. This finding agrees with the earlier report18,19 that the number of cobs produced by maize did not increase with the increase in nitrogen rates. Maize cob yield was greatly enhanced by varietal differences and split N application rates. Variety 2013 TZEE-W DT STR produced the best cob yield (3.33, 3.15 t ha-1) for both mokwa and Ibadan.

Varieties had no significant (p>0.05) effect on grain moisture content among the maize varieties at both locations. TZEE-Y Pop C4 had the highest grain moisture of (13.99 %) while the least grain moisture content was produced in 2013 TZEE-Y DT STR. Split N application rates showed significant effect on maize grain moisture content at Mokwa. The 90 kg N/ha split (60:30) applied at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing produced the highest cob yield (3.91 and 3.73 t ha-1), grain yield (2.99 and 2.80 t ha-1) and 1000 grain weight (432.2 and 414.9 g) in both Mokwa and Ibadan respectively. The least cob yield, grain yield and 1000 grain weight was recorded in the control plot with 0 kg N/ha in both locations. Cob yield of extra early maize was increased linearly with increase in N rates up to 90 kg N/ha. Split N application rate enhanced grain yield produced by extra early maize. This result agrees with18 that grain yield increased with increasing nitrogen rates. Similar, findings was reported that found that yield and yield component of maize were increase by increasing the rate of nitrogen application rates. Increase in maize grain yield with an increase in the rates of nitrogen was also reported,20–23 in their investigations on nitrogen levels and maize grain yield.

For 1000 grain weight, the data in Table 3 reveals that the treatments were significantly different from one another. The different rates of nitrogen fertilizer and time of application influenced the size of maize seed produced. All the treatments where N was applied resulted in higher 1000 grain weight compared with the control. Varietal difference had no significant (p<0.05) effect on 1000 grain weight produced by the extra early maize materials. The 1000 grain weight produced was comparable for both agro-ecologies. 1000 grain weight were increased as N application rate increases up till 90 kg N/ha split (60:30) applied at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing and started decreased at 120 kgN/ha split (30:30:30) applied (Table 4).

Treatments

Number of cobs x 103 ha-1

 Cob yield (t ha-1)

Mokwa

Ibadan

Mokwa

Ibadan

Varieties (V)

2013 TZEE WDT STR

48.25a

45.33a

3.33a

3.15a

2013 TZEE YDT STR

48.00a

44.58ab

2.96b

2.72b

TZEE W POP C5

47.83a

46.42a

2.95b

2.81b

TZEE Y POP C4

48.17a

46.33a

2.69b

2.56b

99 TZEE Y STR QPR

43.42b

41.83ab

2.37c

2.30c

S.E (+)

1.02*

0.99**

0.94**

0.88**

Urea Rate(R)

0kgN

28.13c

29.2c

0.59d

0.71d

30kgN

52.80a

49.33a

2.59c

2.42c

30:30 kgN

52.67a

49.6a

3.31b

3.07b

60kgN

55.20a

51.6a

2.65c

2.55c

60:30kgN

52.40a

48.8a

3.91a

3.73a

30:30:30kgN

45.47b

44.13b

3.30b

3.13b

60:60kgN

45.33b

43.2b

3.39b

3.13b

30:60:30kgN

45.07b

43.33b

3.14b

2.95b

S.E (+)

1.29**

1.26**

0.119**

0.112**

Varieties x Rate

S.E (+)

NS

NS

0.266**

0.250**

Table 3 Effect of split N application rate on plant stand at harvest, cob number and cob weight of maize
WAS = weeks after sowing *, ** = Significant at 0.05 and 0.01 level of probability, respectively, Mean followed by the same letter(s) within the same column and treatments are not significantly different.

Treatments

Grain moisture (%)

Grain yield/ha (t ha-1)

1000 grain weight (g)

Mokwa

Ibadan

Mokwa

Ibadan

Mokwa

Ibadan

Varieties (V)

2013 TZEE WDT STR

13.76

15.56

2.57a

2.38a

358.21

341.2

2013 TZEE YDT STR

12.69

14.44

2.31b

2.08b

338.85

321.7

TZEE W POP C5

13.92

15.72

2.27bc

2.12b

350.77

333.5

TZEE Y POP C4

13.99

15.94

2.07c

1.93b

351.44

334.3

99 TZEE Y STR QPR

13.75

15.75

1.83d

1.73c

354.98

337.8

S.E (+)

NS

NS

0.73**

 0.67**

NS

NS

Urea Rate(R)

0kgN

12.21

13.61b

0.47d

0.55d

274.11e

257.1e

30kgN

13.36

14.78ab

2.01c

1.84c

325.34d

307.7d

30:30 kgN

12.25

14.56ab

2.60b

2.35b

369.11c

351.3c

60kgN

14.14

16.58a

2.04c

1.91c

395.63b

378.0b

60:30kgN

14.7

16.29a

2.99a

2.80a

432.16a

414.9a

30:30:30kgN

14.35

15.41ab

2.53b

2.37b

372.29c

355.7c

60:60kgN

13.84

16.05a

2.62b

2.36b

322.52d

306.1d

30:60:30kgN

14.15

16.6a

2.42b

2.21b

315.64d

298.9d

S.E (+)

NS

0.72*

0.92**

0.85**

6.39**

6.51**

Varieties x Rate

S.E (+)

NS

NS

0.206*

0.191**

NS

NS

Table 4 Effect of split N Application rate on grain moisture, grain yield and 1000 grain weight of Maize
WAS = Weeks After Sowing * = Significant at 5% level of probability, Mean followed by the same letter(s) within the same column and treatments are not significantly different at 5.

Conclusion

The maize variety 2013 TZEE-WDT STR in both locations had higher number of leaves, plant height, cob dry yield, and grain yield at Mokwa and Ibadan respectively. Split N fertilizer application of 90kgN/ha at 2 and 4 WAS produce significantly higher 1000 grain weight, cob yield and grain yield at Mokwa and Ibadan respectively.

The control produced significantly reduced cob yield and grain yield in both locations compared to the rest treatments, therefore growing extra early maize without adding supplement of N fertilizer should be discouraged. The 2013 TZEE-WDT STR is the best variety in terms of growth and yield of maize at the two locations. Mokwa (9o18’N, 5o4’E) representing Southern Guinea Savanna showed to be a favourable environment to produce higher yield of maize using extra early maize varieties. Application of N in two split doses at (2 and 4 WAS) as 60:30kgN/ha on extra-early maize is recommended for achieving optimum grain yield in both locations.

Funding

None.

Acknowledgements

None.

Conflict of interest

The author declares there is no conflicts of interest.

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