Journal of ISSN: 2377-4312 JDVAR

Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research
Mini Review
Volume 5 Issue 1 - 2017
Concise Review: Avian Multipotent Stem Cells as a Novel Tool for Investigating Cell-Based Therapies
Maryam Farzaneh1*, Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam2 and Paul E Mozdziak3
1Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, Iran
2Department of Physiology, University of Medical Sciences, Iran
3North Carolina State University, USA
Received: November 15, 2016 | Published: January 10, 2016
*Corresponding author: Maryam Farzaneh, Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, Tehran, Iran; Tel: +989104579736; Fax: +98 19395-4644; Email:
Citation: Farzaneh M, Khoshnam SE, Mozdziak PE (2017) Concise Review: Avian Multipotent Stem Cells as a Novel Tool for Investigating Cell-Based Therapies. J Dairy Vet Anim Res 5(1): 00125. DOI: 10.15406/jdvar.2017.05.00125

Abstract

The chick embryo is a favorite and great in vivo model, which has long been used in embryology, developmental biology and applied sciences. Also, chicken embryo is the accessible model for transplantation and tracking studies. Avian multipotent stem cells have the capability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types in vitro. Avian multipotent stem cells were successfully isolated from bone marrow (BM), metanephric tissue, lung, amniotic cells, cartilage, and other embryonic and adult tissues. Subsequent analysis was performed to evaluate these multipotent cells in vitro. Results of the present study strongly contribute to the information related to the ability of avian multipotent stem cells to differentiate into cells such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, astrocytes, and other committed cells. Avian multipotent stem cells may provide a new source of avian-derived cell lines for basic research and potential therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Avian stem cells; Multipotent stem cells; Mesenchymal stem cells; Regenerative medicine

Introduction

One of the first most important events in the avian embryonic development is the specification of the three embryonic lineage including ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm [1,2]. The commitment of pluripotent embryonic cells into these groups requires the continue action of several gene products. Although, in the adult tissue, the presence of multipotent to unipotent cells have been considered to maintain some tissue regeneration [3-7]. Avian embryos are a great model in basic and applied sciences [8,9]. Avian multipotent stem cells can maintain self-renewal and multilineage differentiation ability in vitro [10]. The vast majority of avian multipotent stem cells have been obtained from different tissue sources including bone marrow, primary kidney, lung, dermis, and other tissues and the stem cell populations derived from these tissues are valuable (Figure 1). Among different kinds of multipotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells are the most representative type, which can be differentiate into muscle, adipocytes, cartilage, and osteoblasts in vitro [11]. However, the fate of multipotent stem cells was believed to differentiate only into the tissue or organ from which they originated [6,12]. Although, previous reports have suggested that in specific environmental conditions, the multipotent cells may undergo unexpected fate [6,12]. The appropriate effects of multipotent stem cells are in cell-based therapy, tissue engineering, cell transplantation, transgenic studies, and viral vaccines production [9,13-16]. Therefore, these cells may provide a new source of avian-derived cell lines for basic research and potential therapeutic applications [17-19].

Figure 1: Avian multipotent stem cells. Morphological properties of avian multipotent stem cells. The appropriate effects of these cells are in cell-based therapy, tissue engineering, cell transplantation, and transgenic studies, (MSCs; mesenchymal stem cells).

Avian mesenchymal stem cells

Avian mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a small population and commonly isolated from adult bone marrow (BM) [10,12,20,21]. MSCs are fibroblast-like multipotent progenitor cells which have the ability for self-renewal and a differentiation capacity [22]. MSCs were isolated from different anatomical regions of chicken embryo [23] and postnatal 1-14 days old chicken [11,20]. MSCs have been isolated from lung [22], adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, and metanephric tissue, as well [14]. These cells are positive for classic embryonic stem cells that are associated with self-renewal (Table 1) [20,24] and differentiation capacity into muscle, adipocytes, cartilage, and osteoblasts in vitro (Figure 2) [6,24,25]. Moreover, they have immunoregulatory function and inhibit immunological response [26,27]; therefore, these cells are permissive to infected with a variety of pathogenic viruses such as infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) [13] which does not proliferate in chicken fibroblast cells [24]. MSCs are a great tool for a wide variety of diseases research such as cell transplantation, regenerative medicine, and production of transgenic chickens [12,28].

Figure 2: Potential of multi-lineage avian mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are fibroblast-like multipotent progenitor cells which commonly isolated from adult bone marrow (BM) and have the ability for self-renewal and a differentiation capacity to muscle cells, adipocytes, cartilage, and osteoblasts in vitro.

Avian metanephric mesenchymal stem cells

Avian metanephric mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) was obtained from 20days old Beijing duck metanephros [14]. The expression of related genes and proteins, self-renewal potential, their differentiation, and similar morphology with MSCs were evaluated [14,29]. However, their specific surface markers are unknown and they identified based on the expression of certain markers associated with MSCs (Table 1). It seems that, MMSCs are pluripotent and able to differentiate into three somatic lineages such as epithelial cells, liver cells, and pancreatic cells [14]. There are few reports of harvesting avian MMSCs; while, MMSCs are applicable for tissue engineering, cell transplantation, and cell therapy applications on the kidney [14,30].

Cell Type

Surface Marker

Multipotent Transcription Factor

Differentiation Potential

Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs)

CD44, CD44, CD90, CD105

Oct4, Nanog, Sox2

Adipocytes, Osteoblasts, Chondroblasts, Myoblasts

Metanephric MSCs (MMSCs)

CD73, CD71, CD44, CD34, CD29, CD45, Pax2, CD166

Not determined

Adipocytes, Hepatocytes, Epithelial cells, Islet cells

Lungs Derived MSCs (LMSCs)

CD44, CD90, CD105

4-Oct

Adipocytes, Osteocytes

Amniotic MSCs (AMSCs)

CK19, CD29, CD44

Oct4, Nanog, Sox2

Adipocytes, Osteoblasts, Myocardial cells

Cartilage-derived stem/Progenitor cells (CSPCs)

CD29, CD44, CD166, CD105

Not determined

Adipocytes, Osteoblasts, Chondrocytes

Neural stem/Progenitor cells (NSPCs)

Not determined

Not determined

Neurons, Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes

Dermis-derived Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (DMS/PCs)

CD44, CD71, CD73, β-integrin

Not determined

Osteoblasts, Adipocytes, Neurocytes

Adipose-derived stem/Progenitor cells (ADPCs)

CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73

Not determined

Osteoblasts, Adipocytes, Myocardial cells

Table 1: Characterization of avian multipotent stem cells.

Avian lung mesenchymal stem cells

Avian Lungs derived mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs) were obtained from 1 to 2 weeks old chicken. Chicken LMSCs similar to human [31] and mouse LMSCs [32] are multipotent cells with a fibroblast-like morphology, expression of self-renewal and pluripotency marker (Table 1) and differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes [22]. LMSCs have immuneregulatory properties by the inhibition of T-cell proliferation; indeed they have immunosuppressive effects. LMSCs are susceptible to infection with pathogenic viruses and suitable target for viral replication and apoptosis. LMSCs are valuable source for cell therapy applications on the lung and as target for virus infection [22].

Avian amniotic mesenchymal stem cells

Avian amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) were obtained from amniotic epithelial cells [33]. AMSCs are multipotent cells and express transcription factors which are essential for maintaining the self-renewal and undifferentiated state (Table 1). AMSCs are able to give rise into osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocardial cells [34], neural-like cells, and islet like cells [33]. AMSCs suitable tool for tissue engineering research and autologous cell therapy [34-36].

Avian cartilage stem/progenitor cells

Avian cartilage-derived stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) were obtained from the surface zone of articular cartilage from 20 days old chicken embryo. CSPCs are uniform population with long fusiform or polygon morphology [37]. CSPCs are multipotent stem cells and identify by expression of specific surface markers, ability to self-renew, and differentiate into three cell types such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes [37,38]. These cells are great tools for cell-based cartilage repair [37,39-41].

Avian neural stem/progenitor cells

Avian neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) were isolated from dorsal ventricular ridges of 10-13 days old chick embryos [42]. NSPCs are round neurospheres which able to self-renew and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes [42]. These cells are suitable for gene therapy, intracellular distribution of proteins, neurogenesis, tumorigenesis, and given rise to many interesting findings [42-45].

Avian dermis-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells

Avian dermis-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (DMS/PCs) were obtained from dermis of 16 days old chick embryos [46]. These cells show fibroblast-like morphology and multilineage differentiation into adipocyte, osteocytes, and neural cells [46]. DMS/PCs exhibit extensive applications in stem-cell based therapy and tissue regeneration study [46-48].

Avian adipose-derived stem/progenitor cells

Avian adipose-derived stem/progenitor cells (ADPCs) were isolated from subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen and inguinal fat pads of 1 day old chickens [49]. ADPCs are fibroblast-like multipotent stem cells with self-renewal ability and differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and myocardial cells in vitro [17,49]. These cells are novel tool for regenerative medicine, as well [17,49-53].

Conclusion

The biochemical and molecular markers for detecting and evaluating avian multipotent stem cells have yet to be developed (Table 1). In vitro studies have also demonstrated the advantages of using multipotent stem cells for cell transplantation. Actually, very few researches exist that incorporate the beneficial effects of avian multipotent stem cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that research on the properties of avian multipotent stem cells have led to renewed interest in their extended applications.

Acknowledgement

This study was financially supported by grants provided from Royan Institute and Iranian Council of Stem Cell Technology and the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF).

References

  1. Starck JM (1998) Avian growth and development: evolution within the altricial-precocial spectrum. Oxford University Press, USA.
  2. Painter KJ, Maini PK, Othmer HG (2000) A chemotactic model for the advance and retreat of the primitive streak in avian development. Bull Math Biol 62(3): 501-525.
  3. Raff M (2003) Adult stem cell plasticity: fact or artifact? Annual review of cell and developmental biology 19(1): 1-22.
  4. Baksh D, Song L, Tuan RS (2004) Adult mesenchymal stem cells: characterization, differentiation, and application in cell and gene therapy. J Cell Mol Med 8(3): 301-316.
  5. Eisenberg LM, Eisenberg CA (2003) Stem cell plasticity, cell fusion, and transdifferentiation. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews 69(3): 209-218.
  6. Wagers AJ, Weissman IL (2004) Plasticity of adult stem cells. Cell 116(5): 639-648.
  7. Clevers H (2015) What is an adult stem cell? Science 350(6266): 1319-1320.
  8. Farzaneh M, Khoshnam SE, Nokhbatolfoghahai M (2016) First scientific record of two cases of partial twinning in the chick embryo, Gallus gallus domesticus. Veterinary Record Case Reports 4(2): e000353.
  9. Mozdziak PE, Petitte JN (2004) Status of transgenic chicken models for developmental biology. Dev Dyn 229(3): 414-421.
  10. Bai C, Hou L, Ma Y, Chen L, Zhang M, et al. (2013) Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from chicken bone marrow. Cell Tissue Bank 14(3): 437-451.
  11. Bhuvanalakshmi G, Arfuso F, Dharmarajan A, Warrier S (2014) Multifunctional properties of chicken embryonic prenatal mesenchymal stem cells-pluripotency, plasticity, and tumor suppression. Stem Cell Rev 10(6): 856-870.
  12. Young Tae Heo, Sung Ho Lee, Ji Hoon Yang, Teoan Kim, Hoon Taek Lee (2011) Bone marrow cell-mediated production of transgenic chickens. Laboratory Investigation 91(8): 1229-1240.
  13. Khatri M, Sharma JM (2009) Susceptibility of chicken mesenchymal stem cells to infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of virological methods 160(1): 197-199.
  14. Chen J, Pu Y, Sun Y, Zhang P, Li Q, et al. (2016) Biological characterization of metanephric mesenchymal stem cells from the Beijing duck. Experimental and therapeutic medicine 11(2): 439-447.
  15. Petitte JN, PE Mozdziak (2002) Production of transgenic poultry. Transgenic technology: a laboratory handbook. (2nd edn), Elsevier Science, New York, USA, pp. 279-306.
  16. Tingyu Dai, Liao Wu, Zelin Chen, Chunmeng Shi (2017) Stem Cell Based Biotherapy for Radiation Related Injury, Advanced Trauma and Surgery pp. 357-385.
  17. Mizuno H, Tobita M, Uysal AC (2012) Concise review: adipose‐derived stem cells as a novel tool for future regenerative medicine. Stem cells 30(5): 804-810.
  18. Rachel A Stern, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Paul E Mozdziak (2016) Ammonia elicits a different myogenic response in avian and murine myotubes. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal p. 1-12.
  19. Nierobisz LS, McFarland DC, Mozdziak PE (2011) MitoQ 10 induces adipogenesis and oxidative metabolism in myotube cultures. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 158(2): 125-131.
  20. Khatri M, O'Brien TD, Sharma JM (2009) Isolation and differentiation of chicken mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow. Stem Cells Dev 18(10): 1485-1492.
  21. Li L, Bai X, Gong X, Liu H, Chen L, et al. (2009) Differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in duck. J Genet Genomics 36(3): 133-140.
  22. Khatri M, O'Brien TD, Goyal SM, Sharma JM, et al. (2010) Isolation and characterization of chicken lung mesenchymal stromal cells and their susceptibility to avian influenza virus. Dev Comp Immunol 34(4): 474-479.
  23. Young HE, Ceballos EM, Smith JC, Mancini ML, Wright RP, et al. (1993) Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells reside within avian connective tissue matrices. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 29(9): 723-736.
  24. Calloni R, Viegas GS, Türck P, Bonatto D, Pegas Henriques JA (2014) Mesenchymal stromal cells from unconventional model organisms. Cytotherapy 16(1): 3-16.
  25. Martin I, Padera RF, Vunjak-Novakovic G, Freed LE (1998) In vitro differentiation of chick embryo bone marrow stromal cells into cartilaginous and bone‐like tissues. J Orthop Res 16(2): 181-189.
  26. Iyer SS, Rojas M (2008) Anti-inflammatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells: novel concept for future therapies. Expert Opin Biol Ther 8(5): 569-581.
  27. Fierabracci A, Del Fattore A, Muraca M (2016) The Immunoregulatory Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: 'State of Art' and 'Future Avenues'. Curr Med Chem 23(27): 3014-3024.
  28. Nitkin CR, Bonfield TL (2015) Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Pediatric Disease: Perspectives on Success and Potential Improvements. Stem Cells Transl Med pii: sctm.2015-0427.
  29. Duffield JS, Park KM, Hsiao LL, Kelley VR, Scadden DT, et al. (2005) Restoration of tubular epithelial cells during repair of the postischemic kidney occurs independently of bone marrow-derived stem cells. J Clin Invest 115(7): 1743-1755.
  30. Deans RJ, Moseley AB (2000) Mesenchymal stem cells: biology and potential clinical uses. Exp Hematol 28(8): 875-884.
  31. Lama VN, Smith L, Badri L, Flint A, Andrei AC, et al. (2007) Evidence for tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells in human adult lung from studies of transplanted allografts. J Clin Invest 117(4): 989-996.
  32. Summer R, Fitzsimmons K, Dwyer D, Murphy J, Fine A (2007) Isolation of an adult mouse lung mesenchymal progenitor cell population. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 37(2): 152-159.
  33. Gao Y, Pu Y, Wang D, Hou L, Guan W, et al. (2012) Isolation and biological characterization of chicken amnion epithelial cells. Eur J Histochem 56(3): e33.
  34. Li X, Gao Y, Hua J, Bian Y, Mu R, et al. (2014) Research potential of multi-lineage chicken amniotic mesenchymal stem cells. Biotech Histochem 89(3): 172-180.
  35. Mamede AC, MF Botelho (2015) Amniotic Membrane: Origin, Characterization and Medical Applications. Springer, Netherlands.
  36. Feng C, D Graham C, Connors JP, Brazzo J, Zurakowski D, et al. (2016) A comparison between placental and amniotic mesenchymal stem cells for transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) in experimental spina bifida. J Pediatr Surg  51(6): 1010-1013.
  37. Li L, Ma Y, Li X, Li X, Bai C, et al. (2015) Isolation, Culture, and Characterization of Chicken Cartilage Stem/Progenitor Cells. Biomed Res Int 2015: 586290.
  38. Karlsson C, Lindahl A (2009) Articular cartilage stem cell signalling. Arthritis Res Ther 11(4): 121.
  39. Jayasuriya CT, Chen Y, Liu W, Chen Q (2016) The influence of tissue microenvironment on stem cell–based cartilage repair. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1383(1): 21-33.
  40. Jiang Y, Tuan RS (2015) Origin and function of cartilage stem/progenitor cells in osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol 11(4): 206-212.
  41. Shafiee A, Kabiri M, Langroudi L, Soleimani M, Ai J (2016) Evaluation and comparison of the in vitro characteristics and chondrogenic capacity of four adult stem/progenitor cells for cartilage cell‐based repair. J Biomed Mater Res A 104(3): 600-610.
  42. Hou L, Jin D, Gu E, Pu Y, Li F, et al. (2011) Isolation and characterization of duck embryonic neural stem and progenitor cells. Poult Sci 90(3): 609-617.
  43. Xu C, Loh HH, Law PY (2016) Effects of addictive drugs on adult neural stem/progenitor cells. Cell Mol Life Sci 73(2): 327-348.
  44. Covacu R, Brundin L (2015) Effects of neuroinflammation on neural stem cells. Neuroscientist pii: 1073858415616559.
  45. Bengoa-Vergniory N, Kypta RM (2015) Canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling in neural stem/progenitor cells. Cell Mol Life Sci 72(21): 4157-4172.
  46. Gao Y, Bai C, Xiong H, Li Q, Shan Z, et al. (2013) Isolation and characterization of chicken dermis-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Biomed Res Int 2013: 626258.
  47. Chen Z, Wang Y, Shi C (2015) Therapeutic implications of newly identified stem cell populations from the skin dermis. Cell Transplant 24(8): 1405-1422.
  48. Park JR, Kim E, Yang J, Lee H, Hong SH, et al. (2015) Isolation of human dermis derived mesenchymal stem cells using explants culture method: expansion and phenotypical characterization. Cell Tissue Bank 16(2): 209-218.
  49. Gong X, Hou L, Bai C, Jin D, He X, et al. (2011) Isolation and biological characteristics of chicken adipose-derived progenitor cells. DNA Cell Biol 30(7): 453-460.
  50. Gimble JM, Katz AJ, Bunnell BA (2007) Adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine. Circ Res 100(9): 1249-1260.
  51. Mizuno H, Morikuni Tobita, Hakan Orbay, A. Cagri Uysal, Feng Lu (2014) Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Novel Tool for Future Regenerative Medicine. Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Springer pp. 165-174.
  52. Kapur SK, Dos-Anjos Vilaboa S, Llull R, Katz AJ (2015) Adipose tissue and stem/progenitor cells: discovery and development. Clin Plast Surg 42(2): 155-167.
  53. Fiona A van Vollenstee, Carla Dessels, Karlien Kallmeyer, Danielle de Villiers, Marnie Potgieter, et al. (2016) Isolation and Characterization of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells. Stem Cell Processing Springer pp. 131-161.
Scholar Awards

At MedCrave we believe that knowledge should be shared. We also believe that   Read more...

Paper of the Year

In regard to the novelty and excellence of the manuscript MedCrave Group (MCG)   Read more...

Financial Support

MedCrave loves to recognize all the outstanding services delivered in the realms   Read more...

Sponsors

MedCrave accelerates the advancement of scientific research by convening   Read more...

MedCrave Reprints

MedCrave Group is ardent to provide article reprints at an instant affordable Read more...

© 2014-2017 MedCrave Group, All rights reserved. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use.
Creative Commons License Open Access by MedCrave Group is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://medcraveonline.com
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera |Privacy Policy