Mini Review Volume 2 Issue 5
Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
Correspondence: Ejeta KO, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, Tel +2348038795184
Received: December 26, 2016  Published: May 15, 2017
Citation: Ejeta KO, Dolor GA, Ndubuka GI, et al. Impact of nanotechnology in nigeria: a short survey. Int J Biosen Bioelectron. 2017;2(5):136–139. DOI: 10.15406/ijbsbe.2017.02.00035
Nanotechnology, one of the foremost alternative modern technologies of the twentyfirst century offers enormous benefits and opportunities through synthesis, characterization and fabrication of quite vast number of nanomaterial to solve societal immediate problems. Structured questionnaires were administered to three different industries in each of the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria, a Country located in West Africa bordering the gulf of Guinea, Niger and Chad (North), Benin (West) and Cameroon (East) to determine the impact of nanotechnology. The data emanating from this study were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA)^{1} and likert 5 scales with Ttest utilized in determining levels of significance. The findings are reported and discussed.
Keywords: nanotechnology, impact, nanomaterials, societal problems
Nanotechnology a term coined by K Eric Drexler in 1992^{2} refers to manipulation of matter (with at least one dimensional size) from 1 to over 100 nanometer size to create new properties. All materials in nanoscale sizes are referred to as nanomaterials. They have quite a large surface area to volume ratio. This single characteristic paves way for new quantum mechanical effects and provides tremendous driving force for diffusion at elevated temperature.
Types of carbon nanomaterials
There are two types of Carbon nanomaterials
Fullerenes: These are a class of allotropes of carbon which conceptually are graphene sheets rolled into tubes or spheres. They include carbon nanotubes or silicon nanotubes. They are of interest because of their mechanical strength and electrical properties. Common fullerenes include Bucky ball clusters (found in soot or coal), Nanotubes or cylindrical fullerenes, Mega tubes, 2D and 3D polymers and Nanoonions.^{3} The transition of these materials is from Fullerenes to Nanotubes and most recently to Graphenes.^{4}
Nanoparticles: These are inorganic nanomaterials. They are made from metals, semiconductors and other particles that have great chemical, physical, electrical and magnetic properties e.g Quantum dots, Nanowires, Nanorods Clay nanoparticles, Titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Zinc oxide nanoparticles, Nanoparticles of yellow gold and Nanoparticles of gray Silicon.^{46} Basically two kinds of Carbon nanoparticles existsnano diamond and Carbon onions.
Applications of nanotechnology
Nanotechnology and biosensor research
Nanotechnology is having a profound effect on the development of new biosensor. Biosensor comprise a biological molecule immobilized into the surface of a signal transducer to give a solid state. Analytical device. There are two major areas where nanotechnology has drastically impacted on biosensor research in the last two years. One is Nanofabrication of biosensing interface, two is application of new materials to biosensoring.^{10}
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of nanotechnology in Nigeria.
This work involves the administration of structured questionnaire to three industries that utilize nanotechnology in each of the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Primary data were generated from the questionnaire while secondary data were obtained from journals, electronic sites and other relevant materials. Two Hundred and Seventy Questionnaire for each zone, Fortyfive Questionnaire for each state and Fifteen Questionnaire each for each industry in each state. The method of data analysis employed are Multiple Regression Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Ttest utilized in determining level of significance.
Multiple regression analysis
Using this statistical technique, the relationship model was specified as follows:
Y = b_{0} + b_{1} x_{1} + b_{2} x_{2} + ……….. b_{n} x_{n} ……………………………………….(1)
Where e = 0 and b_{1} ............. b_{n} are parameters referred to as regression coefficients
This study has four independent variables and one dependent variable. The dependent variable is impact of nanotechnology denoted by Y while the independent variables include:
X_{1}: Health
X_{2}: Environment
X_{3}: Society
X_{4}: Speculative Issues
Correlation analysis
This was used to determine the degree of relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and independent variable (X_{1} to X_{4}).
Correlation coefficient r ranges from the value of – 1 < r < + 1 given that
$r=\frac{N\sum xy(\sum x)(\sum y)}{\sqrt{[N\sum {{\displaystyle x}}^{2}(\sum {{\displaystyle x)}}^{2}][N\sum {{\displaystyle y}}^{2}(\sum {{\displaystyle y)}}^{2}]}}\sum {{\displaystyle x}}^{2}$ (2)
Where
N: Number of pairs of scores
∑xy: Sum of the products of pairs of scores
∑x: Sum of x scores
∑y: Sum of y scores
∑X^{2}: Sum of squared x scores
∑y^{2}: Sum of squared y scores
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
This was used to obtain the statistical mean between the six zones in Nigeria.
Standard Error of Estimate (SE)
Standard Error of estimate (SE), a measure of the variation from the mean is competed using the
${{\displaystyle S}}_{xy}={{\displaystyle \sigma}}_{y\sqrt{1{r}^{2}}}$ (3)
${{\displaystyle S}}_{yx}={{\displaystyle \sigma}}_{x\sqrt{1{r}^{2}}}$ (4)
${{\displaystyle S}}_{yx}=\sqrt{\frac{\sum {{\displaystyle Y}}^{2}a\sum Y+b\sum YX}{N2}}$ (5)
Where
Y: Actual values
Ye: Estimated values
Decisions rule
The decision rule is to reject the null hypothesis if the probability of obtaining the value of Ttest of a given extreme magnitude is greater than 0.05 or equal 0.01 level of confidence. Otherwise accept alternative hypothesis. If the probability of obtaining the value of Ttest of a given or more extreme magnitude is equal or less than 0.05 level of confidence.
Table 1 measures the closeness of the relationship between the variables in this studyY the dependant variables and X_{1} to X_{4} which are the independent variables (i.e. impact of nanotechnology: on Health, on the Environment, on the Society and on Speculative issues respectively). The Table 1 showed that there is a correlation between Y and X_{1}, of 0.393, Y and X_{2} of 0.315, Y and X_{3} of 0.141, Y and X_{4} of 0.242. This means that there is significant correlation between Y and all the variables predicted in the study, the highest being with X_{1} ( Health) and least with X_{3} ( the Society). Table 2 shows that R_{2} is 0.199, This means that 20% (actual value is 19.9%) of the areas where nanotechnology has impact can be accounted for in this study leaving 80% area not covered. Further research in identifying areas where nanotechnology has impact can improve the value of _{} Table 2 also showed that F sig change is 0.000. This means that the model is very reliable.
Pearson 
Y 
X_{1} 
X_{2} 
X_{3} 
X_{4} 
Correlation Y 
1 
0.393 
0.314 
0.141 
0.242 
X_{1} 
0.393 
1 
0.695 
0.499 
0.214 
X_{2} 
0.315 
0.698 
1 
0.621 
0.195 
X_{3} 
0.141 
0.499 
0.621 
1 
0.257 
X_{4} 
0.242 
0.214 
0.195 
0.257 
1 
Sig(1tailed)Y 
0 
0 
0.021 
0 

X_{1} 
0 
0.01 
.0.000 
0.001 

X_{2} 
0 
0 
0 
0.002 

X_{3} 
0.021 
0 
0 
0 

X_{4} 
0 
0.001 
2E04 
0 
Table 1 Correlations and 1Table Test Result
Model 
R 
RSquare 
Adjusted R 
Std Error of the Estimate 
Change Statistics 


F Change 
Sig Change 

1 
0.446 
0.199 
0.183 
1.925 
12.733 
0 
Table 2 Model Summary
Source: Researcher’s computation 2016 (SPSS Version 20)
Table 3 presents the ANOVA report on the general significance of the Model. Since we have F significance of 0.000 (Less than 0.05 level of confidence) the Model is significant. Thus the combination of the independent variables X_{1}, X_{2}, X_{3} and X_{4} (Health, Environment, Society and Speculative issues respectively) is significantly impacted by the dependent variable Y (Nanotechnology). This thus leads to rejecting Ho and accepting HAi which states that there is significant effect of nanotechnology on the collective areas in Nigeria.
Model 1 
Sum of Squares 
Degree of Freedom 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig 
Regression 
188.74 
4 
47.185 
12.7 
0 
Residual 
759.66 
205 
3.706 

Total 
948.4 
209 
Table 3 FTest (ANOVA)
Source: Researcher’s computation 2016 (SPSS Version 20)
Table 4 Coefficients and TSig Table 4 showed the unstandardized Beta coefficient that presents the contributions of each variable to the model. The T and P values showed the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variables. The decision rule is to consider individual factor with TSig value less than 0.05. Thus X_{2} (Environment) is the area that nanotechnology has no significant effect on in Nigeria when considered individually and X_{1} {Health) is the most significant area of its impact. The result from Table 4 also showed that nanotechnology has significant effect on the society (X_{3}) and speculative issues (X_{4}) with Tsig value of 0.043 and 0.005 respectively.
Coefficients B Std 
Standard Coefficients Beta 
T 
Sig 

1(Constant) 
9.655 1.175 
0.33 
8.219 
0 
X_{1} 
0.327 0.087 
0.152 
3.744 
0 
X_{2} 
0.161 0.103 
0.166 
1.564 
0.119 
X_{3} 
0.170 0.083 
0.184 
2.04 
0.043 
X_{4} 
0.132 0.047 
2.832 
0.005 
Table 4 Coefficients and TSig
Source: Researcher’s Computation 2016 (SPSS version 20)
Table 5 shows the Standardized Coefficients 8 (Beta) of the independent variables X_{1} to X_{4} and hence the actual level of impact of Nanotechnology on the areas of study in Nigeria. Using Table 5, the Model one of impact of Nanotechnology on the areas of study in Nigeria can be generated as;
Y = 0.330X_{1}, + 0.152X_{2} + 0.166X_{3} + 0.184X_{4} + 1925 ……. Eqn. 3
Y: Impact of Nanotechnology in Nigeria
X_{1}: Impact on Health
X_{2}: Impact on the Environment
X_{3}: Impact on the Society
X_{4}: Impact on Speculative issues
1.925: Std error of the estimate
Independent Variables 
Standardized Coefficients (Beta) 
X_{1} 
0.33 
X_{2} 
0.152 
X_{3} 
0.166 
X_{4} 
0.184 
Table 5 Standardized Coefficients8 (Beta)
Source: Researchers computation 2016 (SPSS version 20)
Standard Error of Estimate (SE)
The SE is 1.925. This implies that we can be 95% confident that our observed sample means is 2% (actually 1.92) standard errors from the population means.
Nanotechnology and the nigeria society: Thee imperative
When considered individually (Figure 2) and the collective area of study (Figure 3) Nanotechnology has significant impact on the Nigeria Society. Societal impacts are the potential benefits and challenges that the introduction of Nanotechnological devises and materials may hold for society and human interaction.^{11} Nigeria to some extend enjoys such advantages of Nanotechnology which includes production using little labor and land, low cost and modest requirements for material and energy. Nigeria is also positively affected by potential opportunities of Nanotechnology to help address critical international developmental priorities which include water purification system, energy system, medicine, pharmaceuticals, food production and nutrition, information and communication technology.^{11} Never the less, Nigeria like other developing countries also faces a number of challenges. The majority of Nanotechnology research and development and patents for nanomaterials and products is concentrated in developed countries like United State, Japan, Germany, Canada, and France. In addition, most patents related to Nanotechnology is concentrated among few multinational cooperation such as IBM, Micron technology, advanced Micron devises, and Intel (Nano factory Information 2914) This has led to fears that developing countries including Nigeria, will have access to the infrastructure, funding and human resources required to support nanotechnology and development and that the inequalities between the developing countries is likely to be exacerbated by nanotechnology. Producers in Nigeria and other developing countries could also be disadvantaged by the replacement of natural products such as Robber, Cutting, coffee and tea by development in Nanotechnology. These natural products are important export crops for developing countries and many farmers livelihood depend on them (PR Web, 2006)(Figure 1).
Figure 1 Bar chart showing correlation between independent variable (Y) and dependent variables X_{1} to X_{4}.
Suggestion to Enhance the impact of nanotechnology on the nigeria society
It is proposed that Nanotechnology can only be effective in alleviating poverty and aid development when adopted to social, cultural and local institutional context and designed with active participation of citizen rights. This suggestion seems the imperative in order to enhance the impact of Nanotechnology on the Nigeria Society
The study reveals that nanotechnology has considerable impact on the collective areas of study in Nigeria which include Health, Environment, Society and Spcculative issues.
None.
The author declares no conflict of interest.
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