International Journal of ISSN: 2573-2838 IJBSBE

Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mini Review
Volume 3 Issue 2 - 2017
Bio-Sensing Applications of Graphene Based Composite Films
Savita Maurya*
Dept of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Integral University, India
Received: July 27, 2017 | Published: September 22, 2017
*Corresponding author: Savita Maurya, Dept of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Integral University, Kurshi Road, Lucknow-226026, India, Email:
Citation: Maurya S (2017) Bio-Sensing Applications of Graphene Based Composite Films. Int J Biosen Bioelectron 3(2): 00060. DOI: 10.15406/ijbsbe.2017.03.00060

Abstract

Graphene based composite materials have been extensively studied for the sensing applications attributing to their 2D structures, high conductivity, controlled modification and large specific surface areas, unique mechanical, optical, chemical, electrical, and catalytic properties. Therefore, a number of high quality sensors have been fabricated in recent years. Graphene based composite films (GCFs) that is base of such sensors can be prepared by combining Graphene with different functional nano-materials (carbon materials, noble metals, polymer materials, metal compounds etc.). In this review, we focus on the recent advances in bio-sensing applications of Graphene based composite films.

Keywords: Graphene; GCFs; 2D; RGO; QD; Bio-sensor

Introduction

Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material having honey-comb crystal lattice and thickness of one-atom. It has unique mechanical, electronic, chemical, optical, and thermal properties [1-5]. Particularly its one atom thickness, high charge mobility and high surface-to-volume ratio make it eligible for very sensitive sensing applications [6-7]. Applicability of GCFs for various applications is also limited by their fabrication process. Graphene based biological sensors fabricated through screen-printing electrochemical process has some pros and cons [8]. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in bio-sensing application of Graphene based composite films. Bio sensors are discussed based on usage and sensing mechanism. The key difficulties and future points of view in this quickly emerging field going for GCFs for future sensing applications are given.

Discussion

Various biologically- relevant substances/biomaterials such as DNA, blood sugar, other parameters and H2O2 can be detected using Graphene and/ or its composite films [9-15]. We will discuss GCF based bio-sensors according to their sensing mechanism.

Photo-electrochemical (PEC) bio-sensor

Photo catalytic oxidation /reduction of molecules produces improved electron transfer between semiconductor and analyte when light falls on it. This is the basic principle of Photoelectro-chemical bio-sensors. Generally, quantum dots are used as visible-light active materials. Authors in [16] used CdS QDs-DNA-Graphene composite film as modified electrode. Very high conductivity of Graphene has improved the photo- current significantly. This highly sensitive and high stability PEC sensor can be used to track genotoxic pollutants.

Field-effect transistor (FET) based bio-sensor

Conduction of channel region of FET changes upon adsorption of target molecules, and this is the basis of FET based bio-sensors. Authors in [17] discussed FET based biosensor to detect cholesterol. Authors in [18] developed a cholesterol sensor using NiO-Graphene nano composite film. Authors in [19] developed DNA FET sensor using AuNPs-Graphene composite films.

Enzymatic & non-enzymatic electro chemical biosensor

Authors in [20] fabricated a new electrochemical sensor for sensing application of H2O2. Non-enzymatic sensors have some advantages over their enzymatic counterpart such as cheap fabrication, reusability, wide detection range, excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. Authors in [21] fabricated MnO2- RGO (Reduced Graphene Oxide) film modified electrode based biosensor. Authors in [22] also reported RGO-PLL-Mn3O4 based biosensor with improved catalytic activity toward glucose. Authors in [23,24] have reported, non enzymatic H2O2 sensor based on RGO-AuNP hybrid membranes.

Fluorescent biosensor

Fluorescent bio-sensors are based on energy transfer due to fluorescence resonance, and simultaneous multiplex target detection. Authors in [25] developed Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) based biosensor to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose in diabetes patients. This same sensor can be used as electro-chemical and fluorescent bio-sensor. Authors in [14] also reported GO-AuNPs fluorescence system for DNA sensing.

Other Graphene biosensors

Proteins have charges/dipoles those changes under physiological conditions and this made them suitable for electronic detection of proteins using scattering of field effect [9]. Authors in [26] reported sensor for bacteria detection with very high sensitivity (up to single-cell level). Highly sensitive Graphene hybrid nano-sensors can be directly integrated with biomaterials. These are battery- free that can be used for remote monitoring of pathogenic bacteria and food safety analysis. WS2/Au NPs based bio interfaces were fabricated for 17b-estradiol [27]. Authors in [28] reported, complex MWCNT/MoS2/Au/GOx based bio interfaces for DNA sensing. Table 1 summarizes different biosensors based on GCFs.

Materials

Analyte

References

RGO-ZnO

DNA & TNT

[13]

G-CdS-DNA

Catechol

[16]

G-NiO

Cholesterol

[18]

G-AuNPs

DNA

[19]

RGO- AuNP

H2O2

[20]

RGO-PLL-MnO2

Glucose oxidase, H2O2

[21]

RGO-PLL-Mn3O4

Glucose

[22]

RGO-AuNPs non-enzymatic

H2O2

[23]

RGO-AuNPs- non-enzymatic

H2O2

[24]

WS2/Au NPs

17b-estradiol

[27]

MWCNT/MoS2/Au/GOx

DNA

[28]

Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-functionalized RGO

Glucose, glycated hemoglobin

[29]

Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA)/GOx

thrombin

[30]

Table 1: Biosensors based on GCFs.

Conclusion

Two dimensional Graphene, GFCs and Graphene-like nano-materials is a class of emerging nano-materials with specific planar morphology and properties have attracted considerable attentions. Taking the advantage of chemical compositions and assorted biological effects, these possess attractive and matchless properties and provide colossal opportunity for their ample applications. This review article highlights the recent progress in the development of GFC based bio-interfaces for their bio-sensing applications. Some researchers have done in-depth analysis and reported that there are plenty of possibilities to prepare different GFC based biosensors as more reactions and more molecular structure changes can be taken as bridged media of biosensors. Availability of large surface-to-volume ratio and recognition ability of the biological molecules reactions of Graphene materials increases the selectivity and sensitivity of the biosensors. But everything is not ok with GFC based sensors high salt concentration is one of them. High salt concentration changes surface charge arrangement of GFCs by its aggregation and precipitation [29,30]. It is clear that the immense possibilities in terms of synthesizing Graphene and GFCs and fabricating functional bio-interfaces will lead to the fast development in this hot research area.

References

  1. He Q, Wu S, Gao S, Cao X, Yin Z, et al. (2011) Transparent, flexible, all-reduced graphene oxide thin film transistors. ACS Nano 5(6): 5038-5044.
  2. Liu G, Jin W, Xu N (2015) Electronic structures and theoretical modelling of two-dimensional group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides. Chem Soc Rev 44: 5016-5030.
  3. Lee JH, Lee EK, Joo WJ, Jang Y, Kim BS, et al. (2014) Wafer-scale growth of single-crystal monolayer graphene on reusable hydrogen-terminated germanium. Science 344(6181): 286-289.
  4. Pumera M (2010) Graphene-based nanomaterials and their electrochemistry. Chem Soc Rev 39(11): 4146-4157.
  5. Yang Z, Ren J, Zhang Z, Chen X, Guan G, et al. (2015) Recent Advancement of Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Applications. Chem Rev 115(11): 5159-5223.
  6. Ding J, Sun W, Wei G, Su Z (2015) Cuprous oxide microspheres on graphene nanosheets: an enhanced material for non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of H2O2 and glucose. RSC Adv 5: 35338-35345.
  7. Zhang P, Lu X, Huang Y, Deng J, Zhang L, et al. (2015) J Mater Chem A3: 14562-14566.
  8. Cinti P, Arduini F (2017) Graphene-based screen-printed electrochemical (bio)sensors and their applications: Efforts and criticisms. Biosensors and Bioelectronic 89(1): 107-122.
  9. Salavagione HJ, Díez-Pascual AM, Lázaro E, Vera S, Gómez-Fatou MA (2014) J Mater Chem A2: 14289-14328.
  10. Turcheniuk K, Boukherroub R, Szunerits S (2015) Gold-graphene nanocomposites for sensing and biomedical applications. J Mater Chem B3: 4301-4324.
  11. Wang J, Ouyang Z, Ren Z, Li J, Zhang P, et al. (2015) Carbon 89: 20-30.
  12. Wang J, Rathi S, Singh B, Lee I, Joh HI, et al. (2015) Alternating Current Dielectrophoresis Optimization of Pt-Decorated Graphene Oxide Nanostructures for Proficient Hydrogen Gas Sensor. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7(25): 13768-13775.
  13. Yang T, Chen M, Kong Q, Wang X, Guo X, et al. (2015) Shape-controllable ZnO nanostructures based on synchronously electrochemically reduced graphene oxide and their morphology-dependent electrochemical performance. Electrochim Acta 182: 1037-1045.
  14. Liu Y, Dong X, Chen P (2012) Biological and chemical sensors based on graphene materials. Chem Soc Rev 41: 2283-2307.
  15. Zhang M, Li Y, Su Z, Wei G (2015) Polym Chem 6: 6107-6124.
  16. Liu Y, Wang R, Zhu Y, Li R, Zhang J (2015) A facile label-free colorimetric method for highly sensitive glutathione detection by using manganese dioxide nanosheets. Sens Actuators B 242: 355-361.
  17. He Q, Wu S, Yin Z, Zhang H (2012) Graphene-based electronic sensors. Chem Sci 3: 1764-1772.
  18. Rengaraj A, Haldorai Y, Kwak CH, Ahn S, Jeon KJ, et al. (2015) J Mater Chem B 3: 6301-6309.
  19. Peng HP, Hu Y, Liu P, Deng YN, Wang P, et al. (2015) Label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor for rapid detection of mutidrug resistance gene based on Au nanoparticles/toluidine blue-graphene oxide nanocomposites. Sens Actuators B207: 269-276.
  20. Xi Q, Chen X, Evans DG, Yang W (2012) Gold Nanoparticle-Embedded Porous Graphene Thin Films Fabricated via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly and Subsequent Thermal Annealing for Electrochemical Sensing. Langmuir 28: 9885-9892.
  21. Vilian ATE, Mani V, Chen SM, Dinesh B, Huang ST (2014) Ind Eng Chem Res 53: 5582-15589.
  22. Yang S, Li G, Wang G, Zhao J, Gao X, et al. (2015) Synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrid composite for nonenzymatic glucose sensor. Sens Actuators B221: 172-178.
  23. Zhang P, Huang Y, Lu X, Zhang S, Li J, et al. (2014) One-Step Synthesis of Large-Scale Graphene Film Doped with Gold Nanoparticles at Liquid–Air Interface for Electrochemistry and Raman Detection Applications. Langmuir 30(29): 8980-8989.
  24. Zhang P, Zhao X, Zhang S, Lu X, Li Q, et al. (2013) J Mater Chem B1: 6525-6531.
  25. Zhang P, Zhao X, Ji Y, Ouyang Z, Wen X, et al. (2015) J Mater Chem B3: 2487-2496.
  26. Mannoor MS, Tao H, Clayton JD, Sengupta A, Kaplan DL, (2012) Graphene-based wireless bacteria detection on tooth enamel. Nat Commun 3: 763.
  27. Huang KJ, Liu YJ, Wang HB, Wang YY, Liu YM (2014) Sub-femtomolar DNA detection based on layered molybdenum disulfide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, Au nanoparticle and enzyme multiple signal amplification. Biosens Bioelectron 55: 195-202.
  28. Huang KJ, Liu YJ, Zhang JZ, Liu YM (2014) A novel aptamer sensor based on layered tungsten disulfide nanosheets and Au nanoparticles amplification for 17β-estradiol detection. Anal Methods 6: 8011-8017.
  29. Sridevi S, Vasu KS, Sampath S, Asokan S, Sood AK (2016) Optical detection of glucose and glycated hemoglobin using etched fiber Bragg gratings coated with functionalized reduced graphene oxide. J Biophotonics 9(7): 760-769.
  30. Ahour F, Ahsani MK (2016) An electrochemical label-free and sensitive thrombin aptasensor based on graphene oxide modified pencil graphite electrode. Biosens Bioelectron 86: 764-769.
© 2014-2017 MedCrave Group, All rights reserved. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use.
Creative Commons License Open Access by MedCrave Group is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://medcraveonline.com
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera |Privacy Policy