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eISSN: 2576-4543

Physics & Astronomy International Journal

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 1

The Antigravitation-fiction or reality?

Marius Arghirescu,1 Lucian Spiridon2

1State Office for Inventions and Trademarks, Patents Department, Romania
2Romanian Academy, Committee of History and Philosophy of Science and Technics, Romania

Correspondence: Marius Arghirescu, Patents Department, State Office for Inventions and Trademarks, Romania, Tel 4074 5795 507

Received: December 18, 2018 | Published: January 11, 2019

Citation: Arghirescu M, Spiridon L. The antigravitation-fiction or reality? Phys Astron Int J. 2019;3(1):19-24. DOI: 10.15406/paij.2019.03.00150

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Abstract

The paper presents commentaries related to a theoretical model of anti-gravitational type force generating, resulted from a vortexial model of particle , specific to a cold genesis theory of particles and fields (CGT) which explains the gravitation with a Fatio/leSage type model, by etheronic fluxes produced in the matter de-structuration process, when the temperature inside of cosmic bodies tends toward or attains a critical value T c 2 x 10 12 K .  The model may explain the nature of the force which had pushed the cover of almost 2000 tons of the reactor Elena during the Tchernobyl accident and gives theoretical implications related to the generation of a pulsatory antigravitic (pseudo)charge of quasaric black-holes, in accordance with the evidenced field-like nature of the dark energy and with a toy” model using the concept of “negative mass”. According to a preonic sub-structure of quarks specific to CGT, it results also the conclusion that it is not logical the existence of temperatures higher than 10 13 ÷ 10 14 K  in Universe.

Keywords: anti-gravitational force, vortexial model of particle, cold genesis theory, dark energy, Fatio/leSage type model, etheronic fluxes, antigravitic (pseudo)charge

Introduction

In a previous paper1 were presented briefly some basic particle models resulted from a cold genesis theory of matter and fields,25 (CGT), regarding the cold forming process of cosmic elementary particles, formed- according to the theory, as collapsed cold clusters of gammons- considered as pairs: γ * =  e e + MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeo7aN9aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaGGQaaaaOGaeyypa0Jaaeiia8aa daqadaqaa8qacaWGLbWdamaaCaaaleqabaWdbiabgkHiTaaakiaadw gapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaey4kaScaaaGcpaGaayjkaiaawMcaaaaa @4231@ of axially coupled electrons with opposed charges, which gives a preonic, quasi-crystalline internal structure of cold formed quarks with hexagonal symmetry,5 based on z 0 34  m e MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadQhapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaaGimaaaakiabgIKi7kaaiodacaaI 0aGaaeiiaiaad2gapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGLbaapaqabaaaaa@3FEB@  preon- experimentally evidenced in 20156 but considered as X- boson of a fifth force , of leptons- to quark binding, and on two cold formed bosonic ‘zerons’ : z 2 = 4 z 0 = 136  m e ; MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadQhapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcpeGaeyypa0Jaaeii aiaaisdacaWG6bWdamaaCaaaleqabaWdbiaaicdaaaGccqGH9aqpca qGGaGaaGymaiaaiodacaaI2aGaaeiiaiaad2gapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qa caWGLbaapaqabaGcpeGaai4oaaaa@460F@  and z π = 7 z 0 = 238  m e MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadQhadaWgaaWcbaGaeqiWdahabeaakiabg2da9iaabccacaaI3aGa amOEa8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaaIWaaaaOGaeyypa0Jaaeiiaiaaik dacaaIZaGaaGioaiaabccacaWGTbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaamyzaaWd aeqaaaaa@45FF@ , formed as clusters of degenerate electrons with degenerate mass and magnetic moment and with degenerate charge e * =  2/3 e MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadwgapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaaiOkaaaakiabg2da9iaabccapaWa aeWaaeaacaaIYaGaai4laiaaiodaaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaamyzaa aa@402C@ , (characteristic to the up-quark- in the quantum mechanics).

According to this theory,25 based on the Galilean relativity, the magnetic field is generated by an etherono-quantonic vortex Γ M = Γ A + Γ μ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaacqqHtoWrdaWgaa Wcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8qacGasaEytaaWdaeqaaOWdbiabg2da98aacqqH toWrdaWgaaWcbaGaiadGhgeaaeqaaOGaey4kaSIaeu4KdC0aaSbaaS qaa8qacaWH8oaapaqabaaaaa@434C@ of s-etherons (sinergons- with mass m s 10 60 kg MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aad2gapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGZbaapaqabaGcpeGaeyisISRaaGym aiaaicdapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaeyOeI0IaaGOnaiaaicdaaaGcca WGRbGaam4zaaaa@41F4@ )- giving the magnetic potential A by an impulse density: p s r =  ( ρ s c) r MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadchapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGZbaapaqabaGcdaqadaqaa8qacaWG YbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGH9aqpcaqGGaWdaiaacIcapeGaeq yWdi3damaaBaaaleaapeGaam4CaaWdaeqaaOWdbiabgwSixlaadoga paGaaiykamaaBaaaleaapeGaamOCaaWdaeqaaaaa@47A7@ and of quantons (h-quanta, with mass: m h = h1/ c 2 7.37x 10 51 kg, MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aad2gapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGObaapaqabaGcpeGaeyypa0Jaaeii aiaadIgacqGHflY1caaIXaGaai4laiaadogapaWaaWbaaSqabeaape GaaGOmaaaakiabgIKi7kaaiEdacaGGUaGaaG4maiaaiEdacaWG4bGa aGymaiaaicdapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaeyOeI0IaaGynaiaaigdaaa GccaWGRbGaam4zaiaacYcaaaa@4ECF@ formed as compact cluster of sinergons)- giving the magnetic moment and the magnetic induction B by an impulse density: p c r =  ( ρ c v c ) r MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadchapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGJbaapaqabaGcdaqadaqaa8qacaWG YbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGH9aqpcaqGGaWdaiaacIcapeGaeq yWdi3damaaBaaaleaapeGaam4yaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaadAhapaWaaSba aSqaa8qacaWGJbaapaqabaGccaGGPaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGYbaapa qabaaaaa@468D@ , the nuclear field resulting from the attraction of the quantum impenetrable volume υ i MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abew8a19aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaadMgaa8aabeaaaaa@3AE6@  of a nucleon in the total field generated- according to the fields superposition principle, by the Nn superposed vortices Γ * μ r MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abfo5ah9aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaGGQaaaaOWdamaaBaaaleaapeGa eqiVd0gapaqabaGcdaqadaqaa8qacaWGYbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaaa aa@3EFC@ of component degenerate electrons of another nucleon, having an exponential variation of quanta impulse density, the nuclear potential resulting in the form:

V n r  = υ i P n = V n 0 e r/ h* ;  P n r  =  1 / 2 ρ n r c 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadAfapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGUbaapaqabaGcdaqadaqaa8qacaWG YbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacaqGGaGaeyypa0JaeqyXdu3damaaBa aaleaapeGaamyAaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaadcfapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWG UbaapaqabaGcpeGaeyypa0JaamOva8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaad6gaa8 aabeaakmaaCaaaleqabaWdbiaaicdaaaGccqGHflY1caWGLbWdamaa CaaaleqabaWdbiabgkHiTiaadkhacaGGVaaaaOWdamaaCaaaleqaba WdbiaadIgacaGGQaaaaOGaai4oaiaabccacaWGqbWdamaaBaaaleaa peGaamOBaaWdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaamOCaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPa aapeGaaeiiaiabg2da9iaabccapaWaaeWaaeaadaahaaWcbeqaa8qa caaIXaaaaOGaai4la8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaaaOGaay jkaiaawMcaa8qacqaHbpGCpaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGUbaapaqabaGc daqadaqaa8qacaWGYbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGHflY1caWGJb WdamaaCaaaleqabaWdbiaaikdaaaaaaa@6717@        (1)

By an electron model with radius: a = 1.41 fm and with an exponential variation of the quantum volume density and of the magnetic field quanta:

ρ μ r ρ e r  = ρ e 0 · e r/ h ; MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeg8aY9aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiabeY7aTbWdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGa amOCaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaeyisISRaeqyWdi3damaaBaaale aapeGaamyzaaWdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaamOCaaWdaiaawIcacaGL PaaapeGaaeiiaiabg2da9iabeg8aY9aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaadwgaa8 aabeaakmaaCaaaleqabaWdbiaaicdaaaGccaGG3cGaamyza8aadaah aaWcbeqaa8qacqGHsislcaWGYbGaai4laaaak8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8 qacaWGObaaaOWdaiaacUdaaaa@52A9@      (2)

In the context in which the theoreticians are still search for physical models which may explain the gravity, a few more or less experimental cases raised the question of whether it is possible to produce quantum anti-gravitational forces from nuclear transformations. One of these cases is a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, consisting of the fact that an unidentified force pushed the lid of almost 2000 tons of the reactor called Elena, which was moved without the destroying of the reactor walls. Because the calculations of steam pressure generated inside the reactor could not explain the phenomenon, it was formulated the hypothesis of an unknown antigravity force generating.7

To sustain this hypothesis, it is necessary to know the physical cause of the gravitation force. The theory of generalized relativity gives verifiable observational results, but it is a geometrized theory of gravity, describing the gravity by correlating the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time with the energy and impulse of matter and radiation in a specific area of ​​space.

As physical theory of causal explanation of the nature’s phenomena, the quantum mechanics postulated the existence of a quantum of the gravitational field: the graviton, considered in quantum mechanics with a speed equal to the light speed (c) and with very low mass of mass: m g 10   69 ÷ 10 70 k g . MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aad2gapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGNbaapaqabaGcpeGaeyisISRaaGym aiaaicdapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaeyOeI0IaaeiiaiaaiAdacaaI5a aaaOWdaiabgEpa4+qacaaIXaGaaGima8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacqGH sislcaaI3aGaaGimaaaakiaadUgacaWGNbGaaiOlaaaa@49D3@  It is recognized, in the same time, that the possibility of producing or annihilation of these gravitational quantum fields is unclear. It is also accepted that the gravitational mass that appears in Newton's relation of gravity:

F g = G m g M g / r 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadAeapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGNbaapaqabaGcpeGaeyypa0JaeyOe I0Iaam4ra8aadaqadaqaa8qacaWGTbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaam4zaa WdaeqaaOWdbiaad2eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGNbaapaqabaaakiaa wIcacaGLPaaapeGaai4laiaadkhapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaaGOmaa aaaaa@459F@ (3)

is equal to the inertial mass of the particle or of particle assembly (nucleus, atom, solid body, etc.).

Although there are several causal theories of gravitation, the most well-known is the LeSage type theory, also known as “push gravitation”, resulting from the fact that it implies a pressure of a quantum flux of quanta (gravitons) on the elementary particles and on the material bodies formed by these particles.

The origins of the physical model explaining the force of gravity through the pressure of a quanta flow are, according to the known history, in the theoretical model of Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (1690) and Georges-Louis Le Sage.8

In 1965, Richard Feynman examined the Fatio/LeSage model, noting that the gravity quantum pressure mechanism reproduces the force of gravity variation inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the center of the body, but it noted that the quantum density that would generate such a force, would generate- according to the model, also a drag effect on the bodies displaced by this medium.

Other theories,9,10 reconsidered the Fatio/LeSage explanatory model of gravity, noting the necessity to reconsider also the classical concept of ether as an ultra-finer medium that fills the entire cosmic space, explaining the structural consistency of the elementary particles and the gravitational field - in particular, showing the possibility to explain the inertia force as drag force generated when the material body is moving through ether.

Although the Einstein's special theory of relativity concludes that the concept of ether is not necessary to explain relativistic physical phenomena, the revival of the Fatio/LeSage theory in an etheronic model of the gravitational force generating is justified by some researches that validates the existence of the "dark energy" - considered as a cause of cosmic expansion, with a density of the order of 10-26 kg/m3, physicists such as P.A.M. Dirac showing the connection of the concept of "quantum vacuum" with the concept of "ether".11

An important argument for a gravitation force model of Fatio/LeSage type is also the Einsteinian relation: E0 = m0c2 (c- the light speed in vacuum) which assigns a rest energy E0 to any rest mass m0 of a particle, but which assign a specific mass density ρ φ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeg8aYnaaBaaaleaacqaHgpGAaeqaaaaa@3B80@  also to an energy density E( ρ φ ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadweacaGGOaGaeqyWdi3aaSbaaSqaaiabeA8aQbqabaGccaGGPaaa aa@3DAD@ as those of the gravitational or the electromagnetic field.

It may be mentioned also the “kineto-etheronic” theory10 which considers also a quantum energy component of the quantum vacuum with the smallest non-etheronic quantum of energy ε= h1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abew7aLjabg2da9iaabccacaWGObGaaiOiGiaaigdaaaa@3D95@ , (h- the Planck’s constant) and which- by confining in the form of photonic structures, can explain the rest mass of the elementary particles, in a Galilean relativity.

The problem of an etheronic drag force generating at the bodies displacement was reconsidered - in this context, either by considering the d'Alembert paradox,12 which shows that a superfluid medium with a negligibly low viscosity (such as the ether) generates a quasi-null drag force on a particle or a material body, or by considering a super-luminous, tachyonic speed of the quanta which generates gravitational force, (which would generate a negligible drag force at the particle’s displacement through ether- in report with the gravitation force).

In a cold genesis theory of matter and fields (CGT),24 which also uses a Fatio/LeSage model of gravitation, it is possible to use a generalized static charge model for an unitary expression of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces, according to which the attractive gravitational charge is given by the impulse density of the un-compensated component of etheronic flux acting radially on the surface of the attracting mass of a particle, (Figure 1).

Figure 1Gravitic interaction in a Fatio/LeSage type model.

A possible theoretical model of anti-gravitational-type force generating

From the mentioned theoretical model of gravitation, it results also the possibility to formulate a concept of repulsive anti-gravitic (or pseudo-antigravitic) charge, given by the impulse density of an emergent etheronic flux produced by an intensely vibrated particle whose internal structure is considered in a quantum-vortexial model,24 as being composed of "quantons" with the energy ε= h1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abew7aLjabg2da9iaabccacaWGObGaaiOiGiaaigdaaaa@3D95@ with its own vortex of "heavy" etherons (called “sinergons”- in CGT, with a mass of about 10-60 kg), these “heavy” etherons being considered in CGT as the component of the etherono- quantonic vortex of the particle’s magnetic moment which gives the magnetic potential A.

The theoretical argumentation for an etherono-vortexial nature of the magnetic potential A generating the magnetic induction B = rot.A, is sustained in CGT (chpt. II,2,3) by the microphysical explaining of the magneto-electric and the magneto-mechanical effects such as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Monstein effect and the Einstein-De Haas effect.

The conclusion of the existence of "heavy" etherons results semi-empirically in CGT (being named “sinergons”), from the observation that the most widespread and stable quanta : the "quanton" (0.737x10-50kg) - as massical component of the photons and the half of the cosmic background radiation quantum, of 2.73K, (~2x1040kg, considered in CGT as the electric field quantum, named “vecton”) differ in the mass value by K2×1010 which differentiates this last quantum (and the most stable particle: the electron, (me = 9.1x10-31 kg), while in the opposed sense, the quanton’s mass differs to the graviton’s mass by ~ K 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aac6hapaWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4saaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaadaahaaWc beqaa8qacaaIYaaaaaaa@3C59@ , suggesting the existence of the “heavy” etheronic quantum of ~ 10 60 kg MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aac6hacaaIXaGaaGima8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacqGHsislcaaI2aGa aGimaaaakiaadUgacaWGNbaaaa@3EE7@ .

The possible explanation of this massic difference, K, may be the conclusion that these structures are formed by a “vortex cascade” generation mechanism,24 in the sense that the vortex of sinergons forms the quanton, the mixed vortex of sinergons and quantons forms the vector photon (the “vecton”) and the vortex of sinergons, quantons and light "photons" forms the quantum volume of the electrons by vortexial confinement of photons.

In this model of leptonic particles structuring, the “quanton” is identifiable- within a Galilean relativity, as the smallest massic component, generating also the inertial mass of the photons, which can explain in particular the photon’s deviation or the photon’s energy decreasing in a gravitational field - phenomena experimentally observed, as is known.

The "cold" genesis of the photon and of the electron can be explained on the basis of the vortexial kinetic energy of the sub-quantum medium, by the hypothesis that in a period specific to a Proto-Universe, the primordial "dark" energy included both "light" etherons as well as "heavy" etherons (“sinergons”) and a relative high density of "quantons" formed by etheronic vortexes of “sinergons” produced by the kinetics and the pressure of fluxes of gravitonic etherons, as "chiral" fluctuations of the energy of the quantum "vacuum".1

According to the particle model of CGT,25 in a Galilean-type relativity, the elementary particles such as the electron, the proton or the neutron have a super-dense centroid in the center of their vortexial structure of the quantum volume giving the electromagnetic mass (confined electromagnetic energy, given by “frozen” photons, with rest energy and with quantum-vortexal structure, of etherono-quantonic vortex type). For example, in the case of the electron, the experiments of X-ray scattering on electron have indicated a scattering center with a radius of about 10-18m which,13 in the most plausible way, can be considered to be the radius of the electron’s super-dense centroid.2−5 Also, the energy of the etherono-quantonic vortexes of the vectorial photons into the electronic quantum volume can explain the electron's rest energy: mec2, released at its annihilation with its antiparticle: the positron.

The particle model with a vortexial structure is generally specific to the "etheronic" theories, based on the reconsidering of the ether concept,14 which in particular considers the gravitation to be generated by "etheronic winds" as in the Fatio/LeSage model.15

In the case of the nucleons: protons, neutrons, whose structure is considered in the standard model of quantum mechanics as consisting of sub-particles called "quarks" linked together by strong interaction quanta called "gluons", the sub-structure of "cold" photons of the nucleonic quantum volume considered in CGT is equivalent to the gluonic shell of the nucleons,4,5,18 the current mass of quarks containing the electronic centroids sub-structure that forms the nucleonic super-dense core - according to the nucleon model of CGT, which considers a nucleonic cluster of degenerate electrons coupled in "gammonic" pairs (negatron-positron pairs with diminished mass and magnetic moment)- a structure which is equivalent to the "partonic" core of the quark, considered to be of high density and small radius (less than 10-18m).

A concordance with the observational data of this particle model results indirectly from the observation of a neutron emission of TXS 0506+056 (a quasar with intense particle emission at relativistic speed close to that of light) coincident in direction and time with the emission of its gamma rays,16 a phenomenon predicted as possibility in CGT in the reference4 (pages 90 and 99) by the possibility of transforming some relativistic gammons (gamma radiation quanta of about 1MeV energy) into electronic neutrinos (neutral particles accompanying the nuclear beta radiation), the relativistic gammons resulting from the transformation of the nucleons mass into gamma radiation, according to the nucleon model of CGT, (mass® energy conversion, specific especially to quasaric cosmic sources).

At intense vibration of the particle, this quantum-vortexal structure- energetically maintained by etherono-quantonic winds, is disturbed and partially destroyed by the vibrational energy of the superdense centroid of the particle, and the released quantons and heavy etherons (sinergons) generates an emerging quantum flux whose etheronic component generates an antigravitic force Fa that can cancel or even exceed the intensity of the gravitational etheronic component which gives attractive interaction, (Figure 2). In this case the particle will become repellent particle, as having an anti-gravitic pseudo-charge as long as its vibration is maintained at high value.24

Figure 2Antigravitic type charge.

This conclusion is consistent with the experiments performed by Shaw et al.17 who obtained a relation for the decreasing of the gravitational mass value with the temperature, of the form:

F G T  =  F 0 (1αT);  F 0 = G(Mm)/ r 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadAeapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGhbaapaqabaGcdaqadaqaa8qacaWG ubaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacaqGGaGaeyypa0JaaeiiaiaadAeapa WaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIWaaapaqabaGccaGGOaWdbiaaigdacqGHsisl cqaHXoqycqGHflY1caWGubWdaiaacMcapeGaai4oaiaabccacaWGgb WdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGimaaWdaeqaaOWdbiabg2da9iaabccacqGH sislcaWGhbGaeyyXIC9daiaacIcapeGaamytaiabgwSixlaad2gapa Gaaiyka8qacaGGVaGaamOCa8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaaIYaaaaaaa @59E8@     (4)

with an experimentally determined value of the coefficient: α= 1/ T G = 2x 10 6 K 1 , MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeg7aHjabg2da9iaabccacaaIXaGaai4laiaadsfapaWaaSbaaSqa a8qacaWGhbaapaqabaGcpeGaaGzaVlaaygW7cqGH9aqpcaqGGaGaaG OmaiaadIhacaaIXaGaaGima8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacqGHsislcaaI 2aaaaOWdamaadmaabaWdbiaadUeapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaeyOeI0 IaaGymaaaaaOWdaiaawUfacaGLDbaacaGGSaaaaa@4E32@ (TG = 5x105 K).

According to relation (4) and to the previous explanations, the temperature T, i.e.-the vibrational energy of the atomic nuclei forming the m-mass, reduces the value of the gravitational force because this vibration generates an anti-gravitic force and (pseudo)charge, by destroyed vortexial sub-structures (cold photons) of the nucleon’s quantum volume which releases also heavy etherons (sinergons), the total cancelling of the gravitation force resulting at a temperature TG.

Because the determined temperature TG is much lower than the quarks deconfining temperature: T d 2 x 10 12 K MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadsfapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGKbaapaqabaGcpeGaeyisISRaaGOm aiaadIhacaaIXaGaaGima8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaaIXaGaaGOmaa aakiaadUeaaaa@4189@ , it results –in this case, the conclusion that at higher temperature than the TG value (but lower than Td) it may be generated an antigravitic total charge , i.e- an antigravitic force and field.

The possibility of anti-gravitic force producing through this mechanism in the case of the Chernobyl’s nuclear reactor Elena is in correlation with another enigma found following the nuclear accident:7 the disappearance of 90% of the nuclear fuel and the discovery of 10 tons of aluminum, with an increase in U235 and of the Pu239/U235 ratio, as a result of a fast nuclear reaction chain, fueled by the increase in neutron flux.

It is well-known that when an uranium nucleus decomposes into two smaller nuclei, approximately 0.1% of the uranium nucleus massic energy appears as fission energy with a mean value of ~202 MeV MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aac6hacaaIYaGaaGimaiaaikdacaqGGaGaamytaiaadwgacaWGwbaa aa@3E45@  - for U235, of which ~169 MeV MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aac6hacaaIXaGaaGOnaiaaiMdacaqGGaGaamytaiaadwgacaWGwbaa aa@3E51@  occurs as kinetic energy of the resulted nuclei, 4.8MeV occurs as kinetic energy of the resulted neutrons and ~7 MeV MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aac6hacaaI3aGaaeiiaiaad2eacaWGLbGaamOvaaaa@3CD4@  are the energy of some gamma-ray photons.

According to CGT, the nuclear energy which accelerates the resulted nuclei and nucleons and the difference: 202–(169+4.8+7)=21.2MeV is released in the form of quantum energy, including an etheronic component resulted from the vortexial energy of the magnetic moments of degenerate electrons forming cold quarks, which explains- by the pressure of quanta flux, the kinetics of the uranium fission products and the release of neutrons and gamma-ray photons. Also, at least the etheronic component of the etherono-quantonic flux can explain the enigma of the Elena reactor by the conclusion that its value resulted intense enough to substantially reduce the gravitation force and to push the reactor cover so that it had been removed by the force of the steam formed inside, without the reactor walls destroying.18 In correlation with the relation (4), this conclusion is sustained by the fact that 1MeV vibration energy corresponds- by the relation of the quantum oscillators: Ev=kB·T (kB–the Boltzmann’s constant) to a temperature: T 10 10 K > T G MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadsfacqGHijYUcaaIXaGaaGima8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaaIXaGa aGimaaaakiaadUeacqGH+aGpcaWGubWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaam4raa Wdaeqaaaaa@4178@ .

Theoretical implications of the anti-gravitation force generating model

The explanatory model of antigravitation-type force generating has- through CGT,24 theoretical connections with some other phenomena:

A theoretical consequence of the model of antigravitation force generating through etheronic fluxes emanating from the destruction of matter subjected to a pressure above a critical value is the conclusion that inside the quasars (whose energy is explained by the transformation of the mass of an accretion disk or of nearby stars into energy, at the surface of a massive “black hole” star at temperatures close to that of nucleonic quarks disintegration: TTd), the quasaric black-hole may obtain a pulsatory antigravitic (pseudo)charge by quantum vortexes destruction inside the neutrons quantum volume, containing “frozen photons”, according to CGT,4 (the equivalent of the “gluonic shell” considered by the standard model of particle and the quantum chromodynamics), the etheronic component of these quantum vortexes, being periodically released in form of sinergonic fluxes, identifiable as field-like component of the “dark energy”, that explain also the expansion of the Universe and partially- some gravitational waves recently detected.24

This theoretical conclusion is consistent with a very recent observational result of a team of astrophysicists of the Portsmouth University that evidenced the existence of a dynamic character of the “dark energy” at a level suggesting that the source of the dark energy is not the energy given by the quantum vacuum, but one of a dynamic field.19

An Universe expansion model based on this mechanism of anti-gravitational force-generating, proposed by CGT,24 supposes the intense emission of etheronic fluxes identifiable as fluxes of "dark energy," coming both from the center of the expansion and from the edges of the material universe- from a zone of “stellar cemetery” where the stellar structures and the non-leptonic elementary particles are disintegrated as a result of the decrease in the density of etherons that may form sinergonic vortices. According to the resulted model, the expansion force is of semi-sinusoidal variation,24 in accordance with the relation:

F e = F a - F d = M s * dv e dt = π M s * . v M 2 2 R u sin 2πR R u ; R < 4 5 R u ;   MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaadaqfqaqabSqaai aadwgaaeqakeaacaWGgbaaaiaadccacaWG9aGaamiiamaavababeWc baGaamyyaaqabOqaaiaadAeaaaGaamiiaiaad2cacaWGGaWaaubeae qaleaacaWGKbaabeGcbaGaamOraaaacaWGGaGaamypaiaadccacaWG GaWaaubmaeqaleaacaWGZbaabaGaamOkaaGcbaGaamytaaaadaWcaa qaamaavababeWcbaGaamyzaaqabOqaaiaadsgacaqG2baaaaqaaiaa dsgacaWG0baaaiaad2dacaWGGaGaamiiamaalaaabaGaeqiWdaNaey yXIC9aaubmaeqaleaacaWGZbaabaGaamOkaaGcbaGaamytaaaacaWG UaGaaeODamaaDaaaleaacaqGnbaabaGaaeOmaaaaaOqaaiaaikdada qfqaqabSqaaiaadwhaaeqakeaacaWGsbaaaaaacaWGGaGaai4Caiaa cMgacaGGUbGaamiiamaalaaabaGaamOmaiabec8aWjaadkfaaeaada qfqaqabSqaaiaadwhaaeqakeaacaWGsbaaaaaacaWGGaGaam4oaiaa dccacaWGGaGaamiiaiaadkfacaWGGaGaamipaiaadccadaWcaaqaai aaisdaaeaacaaI1aaaamaavababeWcbaGaamyDaaqabOqaaiaadkfa aaGaai4oaiaabccacaqGGaaaaa@70D0@    (5)

in which v M 0.5·c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadAhapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGnbaapaqabaGcpeGaeyisISRaaGim aiaac6cacaaI1aGaai4Taiaadogaaaa@4017@  is the maximal expansion speed and Ru –the radius of the material Universe.

It was shown in CGT24 that the eq. (5) corresponds to a classical equation of the Universe’ expansion with the field’s source containing both gravitic and anti-gravitic charges density, which is equivalent to the Einstein-Friedmann equation for the flat Universe with negligible matter pressure and high dark enery density, ρ Λ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeg8aY9aadaWgaaWcbaGaeu4MdWeabeaaaaa@3B47@ , for ρ a * 2 ρ Λ * MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeg8aY9aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaadggaa8aabeaakmaaCaaaleqabaWd biaacQcaaaGccqGHijYUcaaIYaGaeqyWdi3damaaBaaaleaapeGaeu 4MdWeapaqabaGcdaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaGGQaaaaaaa@42C7@ , with: ρ Λ * MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeg8aY9aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiabfU5ambWdaeqaaOWaaWbaaSqabeaa peGaaiOkaaaaaaa@3C5B@ -the mean “dark energy” density; ρ a * MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeg8aY9aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaadggaa8aabeaakmaaCaaaleqabaWd biaacQcaaaaaaa@3BCC@ - mean density of anti-gravitic pulsatory (pseudo)charges, given especially by quasars and hypernovae, with ρ a R T u R MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abeg8aY9aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaadggaa8aabeaakmaabmaabaWdbiaa dkfaa8aacaGLOaGaayzkaaWdbiabgYJi+jaadsfapaWaaSbaaSqaa8 qacaWG1baapaqabaGcdaqadaqaa8qacaWGsbaapaGaayjkaiaawMca aaaa@438E@ , (Tu- the mean Universe’s temperature).

This phenomenological model of Universe’ expansion is concordant with the observation that the dark energy corresponds to a dynamic field19 and to the modified ΛCDM „toy” model of Universe’ expansion of J Farnes20 based on the concept of “negative mass fluid”, which reconsiders the Einstein’s propose to consider also the existence of gravitationally repulsive negative masses (in reality- negative, antigravitic pulsatory (pseudo)charges, of periodically very hot cosmic sources, emitting periodical fluxes of “heavy” etherons detectable on Earth as gravitational waves, according to CGT.4

b) In the quantum-vortexial particle model of composite fermion, used in CGT, which considers the quarks as preonic clusters (of collapsed Bose-Einstein condensate of pre-quarks z 0 34  m e MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadQhapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaaGimaaaakiabgIKi7kaaiodacaaI 0aGaaeiiaiaad2gapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGLbaapaqabaaaaa@3FEB@ ))15, it can be considered also the existence of a critical temperature Tq of quarks destruction into preons.24

We may suppose that this temperature corresponds to that resulting from the relativistic speed (vc) of all kinetised quarcic sub-components of the nucleon, i.e - to the Einsteinian mass-energy conversion relation:

Mpc2EvM= kBTq;Tq1013K   (6)

in which: Mp = 1,67x10-27kg –the proton’ mass;

E v M MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadweadaqhaaWcbaGaamODaaqaaiaad2eaaaaaaa@3A9B@  the maximum value of the vibration energy.

Also, since the quantum-vortexial forces between the quasi-electrons of a z0-preon, considered as Bose-Einstein condensate of gammons, are relatively weak,24 it is deductible that- at Tq –temperature, also the preons may be transformed into semi-hard gamma quanta (γ= ee+) but also into electronic neutrins, by the loosing of the shell of “frozen photons” of the gammonic electrons.24

In this case, the nucleon disintegration products can no longer generate temperatures higher than 1013÷1014K, according to the relation (6).

Since nucleons are particles that can form stable or quasi-stable material structures, it results - through the relation (6) - that it is not logical the existence of cosmic temperatures higher than 1013÷1014K  (temperatures assumed by some astrophysical models, including the cosmological Big-bang model of Universe expansion),21 even in the context of the considering of a relativistic Einsteinian relation of particle’s mass increasing with its speed.

In the relation (6), the considering of the particle’s rest mass and not the Einsteinian relativist mass, given by the relation:

M v  =  M 0 /β;β= 1  v 2 / c 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aad2eapaWaaeWaaeaapeGaamODaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaaeii aiabg2da9iaabccacaWGnbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGimaaWdaeqaaO Wdbiaac+cacqaHYoGycaGG7aGaeqOSdiMaeyypa0ZaaOaaaeaapaWa aeWaaeaapeGaaGymaiabgkHiTiaabccacaWG2bWdamaaCaaaleqaba WdbiaaikdaaaGccaGGVaGaam4ya8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaaIYaaa aaGcpaGaayjkaiaawMcaaaWcpeqabaaaaa@4E58@           (7)

in which: M0 - the rest mass, v - the relativist speed of the particle, is consistent with the fact that at the experimental realizing of the proton’s disintegration performed with accelerated nuclei at relativist speeds (vc) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaacaGGOaaeaaaaaa aaa8qacaWG2bGaeyOKH4Qaam4ya8aacaGGPaaaaa@3D0F@ , the measured temperature of the mixture of nucleons and quarks- gluons plasma was "only" 2x1012K, (below T q 10 13 K MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadsfapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGXbaapaqabaGcpeGaeyisISRaaGym aiaaicdapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaaGymaiaaiodaaaGccaWGlbaaaa@3FDE@ , corresponding to the relation (6)). At the same time, in our opinion, this fact indicates that the relativist mass given by the Einsteinian relation (7) gives the value of an apparent and not real mass, there being an argument in favor of the conclusion of the relativist variation of the longitudinal electric field which accelerates a charged particle, variation which gives the appearance of the speed-depending mass variation (7).22

c) An eventual confirmation of the possibility of anti-gravitational force generating through etheronic fluxes emitted in the partial destruction of etherono-quantonic vortexes from the sub-structure of nucleons or of electrons intensively vibrated, in accordance with the relation (4) , would lead to the conclusion of the possible technical use of this phenomenon by generating a quantum pressure difference (implicitly- of a quantum force) between the faces of a metal plate in which only the charges of one of the faces are vibrated intensely by the action of electromagnetic waves of high frequency.

This conclusion is concordant with the conclusions of other authors regarding the possibility of asymmetric Casimir effect producing by quantum vacuum energy23 and allow a new theoretical explanation of the propulsion force generating in the EM-Drive case, exclusively by electromagnetic waves, (by microwaves).24

Conclusion

The concept of antigravitational pseudo-charge developed in CGT by a Fatio/LeSage type model of gravitational force generating, implies the formation of emerging etheronic fluxes by intensely vibrated particles (particularly-electrically charged particles) by the destruction of “sinergonic” vortexes of heavy etherons that explain in CGT the physical nature of the magnetic potential A . This process may occur in the partial or integral matter destructuring, especially when the cosmic body’s temperature exceeds a critical value T q 2x 10 12 K MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadsfapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaWGXbaapaqabaGcpeGaeyisISRaaGOm aiaadIhacaaIXaGaaGima8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaaIXaGaaGOmaa aakiaadUeaaaa@4196@  - specific to the quarks deconfining inside the quantum volume of nucleons.

Although it is based on an experimentally not enough validated particle model, the resulted model of anti-gravitational (pseudo)charge and anti-gravitational force generating is consistent with the result of the experiments of Shaw et al.17 regarding the temperature-depending gravitational mass decreasing and can explain in a non-contradictory way the accidental pseudo-anti-gravitational phenomenon in the case of Elena reactor from Chernobyl, of reactor cover removing without the reactor walls destroying.

The used explanatory model indicates the possibility of pulsating (pseudo)anti-gravitic charge producing in the case of elementary particles with magnetic moment and vibrational energies corresponding to temperatures close to that of quarks deconfining: T T q MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aadsfacqGHsgIRcaWGubWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaamyCaaWdaeqaaaaa @3CC6@ , especially in the case of collapsed stars such as massive “black hole” stars, which determine matter MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi abgkziUcaa@39C4@ energy transformations at their surface.

The conclusion of the liberation through this phenomenon of "heavy" etherons, identifiable in astrophysics with the so-called "dark energy", is in accordance with the nature of “repellent” field of the “dark” energy,19 evidenced by astrophysical observations, and to the observation that a modified ΛCDM cosmologic model of Universe’ expansion with continuously-created negative masses can resemble the cosmological constant and can flatten the rotation curves of galaxies,20 with the observation that the causal explanation is a negative and periodically generated antigravitic (pseudo)charge, and not a negative mass (considering the mass as measure of matter’ quantity).

According to a preonic model of quarks, specific to CGT, it results also a critical temperature of quarks transformation into preons and the conclusion that it is not logical the existence of temperatures higher than 10 13 ÷ 10 14 K MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqkY=wjYlH8qqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbb a9q8WqFfea0=yr0RYxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9 Ff0dmeaabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaqaaaaaaaaaWdbi aaigdacaaIWaWdamaaCaaaleqabaWdbiaaigdacaaIZaaaaOGaey49 aGRaaGymaiaaicdapaWaaWbaaSqabeaapeGaaGymaiaaisdaaaGcca WGlbaaaa@4169@  in our Universe.

By the resulted model it is argued also the possibility of technical producing of antigravitation force, generated as quantum pressure gradient, by intense vibration of charged particles, mainly- of atomic nuclei or/and of nucleons.

Acknowledgments

None.

Conflict of interest

Authors declare there is no conflict of interest.

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