Research Article Volume 5 Issue 3
University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Correspondence: Mihajlo Mijanovic, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Received: October 30, 2022  Published: October 14, 2022
Citation: Mijanovic M. Juvenile delinquents and sports.MOJ Sports Med. 2022;5(3):6265. DOI: 10.15406/mojsm.2022.05.00120
A sample of 80 juvenile delinquents was examined to determine the motives that decide juvenile delinquents decide to play sports. For this purpose, a survey of eleven questions was used. After the conducted research and extensive statistical analysis, three factors were extracted, the first of which is particularly relevant. It can be reliably concluded that juvenile delinquents play sports in order to consume alcohol after and before training, smoke, take opiates, miss school and be out of parental control. The second and third factors are positive, but significantly weaker than the first. The structure of positive factors consists of variables: I play sports to travel, to earn money, to live a healthy lifestyle. To be with a girl who also plays sports. The first factor contributes 42%, the second 17% and the third 16% to the explanation of the problem.
Keywords: minors, delinquents, sport, motives, factors
Juvenile delinquency is a serious problem of the modern world. Who is a juvenile delinquent and who is an adult varies from state to state. The age range of minors ranges from 14 to 18 years. In some countries, that range is higher and ranges from 10 to 21 years. In the US, that range varies from state to state. Some states have moved the lower limit below 10 years, and some have moved the upper limit to 21 years.^{1} There are many definitions of delinquency. The recognizable phrase reads; delinquents are persons with deviant behavior. It is about behavior that is not aligned with the applicable law and social norms. Numerous professional and scientific institutions deal directly and indirectly with the problem of delinquency. Delinquency is especially being dealt with by psychologists, sociologists, pathologists, criminologists, political scientists, kinesiologists, etc.
The complex phenomenon of delinquency is being viewed, and is being studied from the point of view of a specific profession and science. Delinquency and criminality is in causality with numerous endogenous, exogenous, cognitive and conative, manifest and latent variables and factors. Deviant and antisocial behavior implies various types of violence against peers, and also younger and older people are not spared. As a rule, juvenile delinquents are persons who are neglected in the family, rejected in society and problematic in school. There are numerous studies on juvenile delinquents and nondelinquents.
There are various comparisons based on; intelligence, success in school, sports, aggressiveness, phobic, paranoid, frustration tolerance and even in physical appearance (morphology), etc. In general, there are differences between delinquents and nondelinquents according to the variables and factors mentioned. In some cases, these differences are statistically significant. Research on the cognitive level is particularly interesting.^{2}
From the perspective of legal norms, juvenile delinquents are minor and major offenders, with problematic antisocial behavior, excluding crimes such as murder. Delinquency begins with petty thefts, frauds, deceptions, lies, individual and group fights, kidnappings from the weaker ones. The status symbols of juvenile delinquents are: smoking, alcohol, psychoactive opiates and deviant behavior.^{3} They ignore, ridicule and bully the peers of acceptable behavior. They especially show animosity towards their peers, good students and athletes. They provoke parents, teachers, elders and superiors. They are recognizable by increased and uncontrolled aggressiveness, rigidity, anxiety and immorality. They associate informally with peers of similar inclinations. Their idols are adult "successful" criminals. In the beginning, they gather informally in smaller groups (cliques), and over time they potentially grow into serious delinquents and criminals.
Subject and problem of the research
The subject and problem of the research are juvenile delinquents and the motives that influence, encourage and decide juvenile delinquents to play sports. The emphasis on sports is the assumption that juvenile delinquents can be resocialized through sports. In this direction, there are studies that confirm, but also refute this assumption.^{4}
Goal of the research
The goal of the research is to accurately and impartially determine the relevant factors that cause juvenile delinquents to play sports. The factors are determined by eleven manifest variables, i.e. questions. The questions are defined in the Survey.
Research hypothesis
The results of previous and current research show that juvenile delinquents spend a lot of time on the Internet. According to their possibilities, they consume alcohol, smoke, use psychoactive substances.^{5} Betting houses are a substitute for schools, a place where minors often gather and work out methods to get money in an easy way. All in all, it is illegal (unlawful), which is why they are sanctioned and registered as light or serious delinquents by the competent institutions. Motives for doing sports are in the background. Sport is just a cover (mask) for them to be absent from school, to avoid control by parents and teachers, as well as to deceive the social environment.
Survey
"What are your motives for playing sports" (rank by priority from 1 to 5).
In the fictitious example, the answers to these questions were: (d=1, a=2, c=3, f=4, j=5). The ranking of priorities was as follows: The first priority is "To earn money" (d). In the second place (a). "My parents and close relatives were athletes". In third place, the priority is c). "To travel". In fourth place is (f). "To be more with company outside the home". The fifth priority is (j). "To be able to be absent from school more". The respondent can circle a maximum of five answers. In addition to the circled questions, the respondent writes the priority ranking from 1 to 5 in parentheses (__). In the example, the first priority is (d) "I play sports to earn money", etc., the fifth priority is (j). "To be able to be absent from school more".
The sample of respondents consists of 80 male juvenile delinquents, aged 14 to 18, who live in the territory of the state of Montenegro. According to the relevant records of the competent institution (Ministry of Internal Affairs), all respondents were registered as juvenile delinquents. In order to conduct the research, it was necessary to obtain consent from the competent ministries (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Ministry of Education).
A large number of standard and nonstandard statistical tests and methods were applied in this research to the adequately set Goal and Hypothesis. Basic statistical values are shown in Table 2. Tables 3 and 4 show the results obtained by the procedure of several factor analyses: (Extraction Method Principal Component Analysis, Extraction Method Principal Component, Rotation Method Varimax with Kaiser Normalization).
Correlation and transformation matrix are not shown in the paper. The source data is standardized by algorithm;
${Z}_{i}=({x}_{i}{\mu}_{i}){\sigma}^{1}$
and then rescaled to a fivepoint "Likert scale",^{6} followed by correlation and factor analysis.^{7}
Basic statistics is shown in Table 1. First, the values of the arithmetic means (Mean) are looked at. As you can see, the smallest arithmetic mean is 2.45 and refers to (Motiva), and the largest is 3.37, it is about (Motivg). It should be noted that the priorities are ranked from 1 to 5, so the variable with the smallest arithmetic mean is prioritized first, and the variable with the highest arithmetic mean is prioritized last. Missing values show that a large number of respondents were not willing to give an answer. In the example (of Motiv) it reads; "My parents or close relatives were athletes". Motivg reads; "To spend time with a girl".
Motives 
Motiva 
Motivb 
Motivc 
Motivd 
Motive 
Motivf 
Motivg 
Motivh 
Motivi 
Motivj 

Valid 
N 
42 
42 
49 
47 
60 
42 
30 
22 
17 
25 
Missing 
38 
38 
31 
33 
20 
38 
50 
58 
63 
55 

Mean 
2.45 
3.29 
2.92 
3 
2.9 
2.52 
3.37 
3.27 
3.53 
2.92 

Std. Error of Mean 
0.251 
0.249 
0.193 
0.213 
0.21 
0.202 
0.189 
0.379 
0.471 
0.336 

Std. Deviation 
1.626 
1.612 
1.351 
1.46 
1.623 
1.311 
1.033 
1.778 
1.94 
1.681 

Skewness 
0.608 
0.198 
0.048 
0.131 
0.118 
0.627 
0.42 
0.343 
0.632 
0.136 

Std. Error of Skewness 
0.365 
0.365 
0.34 
0.347 
0.309 
0.365 
0.427 
0.491 
0.55 
0.464 

Kurtosis 
1.288 
1.634 
1.058 
1.427 
1.628 
0.221 
0.378 
1.765 
1.778 
1.66 

Std. Error of Kurtosis 
0.717 
0.717 
0.668 
0.681 
0.608 
0.717 
0.833 
0.953 
1.063 
0.902 

Minimum 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

Maximum 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
Table 1 Basic statistics motives^{7}
Other statistical parameters describe the variability around the arithmetic mean, in order to obtain a valid and reliable representation of the compliance of manifest variables with a normal Gaussian distribution. Standardization of all variables xi was performed. The original, absolute values were transformed into zscores. Considering that the primary goal of this work was to determine the motives that led juvenile delinquents to choose sports, an explicit answer was obtained by applying a number of correlation and factor analyzes and tests. On the set of 10 manifest variables, the Factor Analysis Method of the main components (Principal Component Analysis) was applied. The total (explained) variance (Total Variance Explained) was calculated. After extracting the three relevant components (factors), the component matrix was calculated on three factors (Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis), after which the orthogonal rotation of the factors (RotatiVarimax with Kaiser Normalization) was performed.
Table 2 (Total Variance Explained) shows characteristic roots for each manifest variable. Only those whose values areare considered relevant characteristic roots. In the example, there are three relevant characteristic roots that meet the given criteria,and. As a rule, the first characteristic root is always greater than the second, the second than the third, and so on.
Total variance explained 

Component 
Initial Eigen values 
Extraction sums of squared loadings 

λ 
% of Variance 
Cumulative % 
Total 
% of Variance 
Cumulative % 

1 
4.145 
41.445 
41.445 
4.145 
41.445 
41.445 
2 
1.697 
16.968 
58.413 
1.697 
16.968 
58.413 
3 
1.65 
16.496 
74.909 
1.65 
16.496 
74.909 
4 
0.96 
9.595 
84.504 

5 
0.572 
5.717 
90.222 

6 
0.488 
4.882 
95.103 

7 
0.295 
2.947 
98.05 

8 
0.139 
1.386 
99.436 

9 
0.054 
0.543 
99.979 

10 
0.002 
0.021 
100 
Table 2 Initial Eigen values extraction sums of squared loadings
The relevance of the characteristic roots is determined by the size of the valid variance. In the example, the first characteristic root corresponds to a variance of 41.445%, the second 16.968% and the third 16.496%. Therefore, the total explained variance is 74.909%. Based on the above indicators, it can be concluded that the explained (valid variance) amounts to approximately 75%. Given that the explained variance is 75%, it follows that the unexplained variance is 25%. A careful reader may notice that the test contains 11 questions. In the statistical procedure, the question (Motivk) that reads "Some other motive" is missing.^{8} There were no answers to this question, that is, it was negligible, so this variable was excluded from the statistical procedure. After several statistical correlation and factorization procedures, the conclusion was drawn based on the Rotated Component Matrix (Varimax with Kaiser Normalization) (Table 3).
Communalities 
Component matrix 
Rotated component matrix 

Motiva 
1 
0.756 
Motivh 
0.983 
0.023 
0.052 
Motivh 
0.911 
0.355 
0.118 
Motivb 
1 
0.395 
Motivi 
0.971 
0.02 
0.054 
Motivi 
0.878 
0.352 
0.229 
Motivc 
1 
0.862 
Motive 
0.855 
0.073 
0.081 
Motive 
0.79 
0.341 
0.048 
Motivd 
1 
0.745 
Motivb 
0.545 
0.208 
0.235 
Motiva 
0.756 
0.227 
0.365 
Motive 
1 
0.743 
Motivj 
0.537 
0.513 
0.131 
Motivb 
0.625 
0.067 
0.018 
Motivf 
1 
0.84 
Motivc 
0.511 
0.767 
0.11 
Motivj 
0.581 
0.202 
0.436 
Table 3 Correlations with the first component (Component matrixa and rotated component matrixa)
According to the obtained correlation coefficients, Motivh is in first place, which explicitly reads: "I do sports to consume alcohol and cigarettes before or after training". The correlation of this motive with the first factor is .911. In second place is Motivi. "To consume some opiate before and after training", this motive is correlated with the first factor .878. As you can see, the first factor determines 6 variables whose correlation coefficients successively decrease. The last relevant motive on the first factor is Motivj which reads; "I play sports so that I can be away from school more". The second factor consists of only two motives. Motivec "I do sports to travel" and Motived "I do sports to earn money". The correlation of Motivec with the second factor is .884, and that of Motived is .856. The third factor is also defined by two variables. Motivef "I do sports to live a healthy lifestyle" and Motiveg "I do sports to spend time with a girl who does sports". As can be seen, the correlation coefficients with the third factor are .833 and .787. Based on the exact correlation coefficients of factors and motives, it can be concluded that the first factor consists of 6 variables or motives that are negative and undesirable for the individual, family and society. The second and third factors are positive and desirable, but unfortunately they are in the background. See (Tables 2&4).
1. First factor λ1=4.145 i.e % of Variance 41.445 
Koef. 
Motivh “To consume alcohol and cigarettes before or after training” 
0.911 
MotivI “That I consume some opiate before and after training” 
0.878 
Motive “To live a healthy lifestyle” 
0.79 
Motiva “My parents or close relatives were athletes” 
0.756 
Motivb “To be popular” 
0.625 
Motivj “To be able to be absent from school more” 
0.581 
2. Second factor λ2=1.697 i.e % of Variance 16.968 
Koef. 
Motivc “To travel” 
0.884 
Motivd “To earn money” 
0.856 
3. Third factor λ3=1.650 i.e % of Variance 16.496 
Koef. 
Motivf “To be more with company outside the home” 
0.833 
Motivg “To spend time with girlfriends and boyfriends who play sports” 
0.787 
Table 4 Factor structure after Varimax rotation
According to the literature review,^{9} "Adolescent smoking is associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, socioeconomic status of parents, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends , school factors , risk behavior, lifestyle, stress, depression/concussion, selfesteem, attitudes and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is associated with other psychosocial variables. Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyzes would should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theorydriven and consider a range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological and physiological influences, which may influence smoking behavior. Apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income must be addressed, as well as the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy."
Based on the aforementioned findings, this paper is an attempt to achieve maximum parsimony with the help of multivariate statisticalmathematical methods. The causes of juvenile delinquency are numerous, it is difficult to detect them precisely and even more difficult to quantify. According to previous experience, the primary factors are; family, school and social environment. Problems in the family are undeniably correlated and causal with juvenile delinquency. Sport is a hypothetical factor to prevent delinquency. In case there is no control and supervision by family and school, sport is a good excuse for delinquents.
Conclusion the results of the research show that juvenile delinquents are interested (motivated) in playing sports so that under the "mask" of sports they can more easily avoid control by parents, teachers and the environment in which they live. The primary motive, determination and occupation is: consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, psychoactive substances, absence from school, kidnapping, theft, physical and mental violence, betting, gambling, etc. Declaratively, there are also positive motives which, as you can see, are in the second plan. Given that these are personal statements that are surprisingly honest, it is no coincidence that they were identified as delinquents by the competent institutions. It should be pointed out that a large number of respondents did not want to express themselves, especially on delicate issues. When it comes to honesty, it is stated that they were honest, and they are honest because there is relevant evidence at the competent institutions. Based on the overall exact results of the research, the set hypothesis can be reliably accepted.
None.
The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest.
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