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eISSN: 2373-6445

Psychology & Clinical Psychiatry

Review Article Volume 10 Issue 1

Teenage initiation (norm, deviation, pathology, therapy)

Yu S Shevchenko

Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Russia

Correspondence: Yu S Shevchenko, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Moscow, Russia

Received: July 20, 2018 | Published: January 7, 2019

Citation: Shevchenko YS. Teenage initiation (norm, deviation, pathology, therapy). J Psychol Clin Psychiatry. 2019;10(1):1-3. DOI: 10.15406/jpcpy.2019.10.00621

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Russian medical academy of continuing professional education

Initiation as a process and the result is a ritual of transition from a teenage child's status to the status of an adult member of society. It has phylogenetic nature and involves not only the usefulness of the genetic program of development of the brain, but also the availability of appropriate social conditions for their successful implementation.1,2 Such conditions exist in any traditional society.3,4 Frustration innate need for initiation leads to deviant behavior and mental disorders, reflecting the core modules of its socio-biological program.5–7 Raising adolescents and therapy should be arranged in accordance with the scenario ethological initiation.8 Since ancient times, initiation - oriented human age ceremony of initiation into the new social status (with prototypes in the social behavior of the higher animals and saved in any traditional culture) is an important element of education. In primitive communities were characterized by an early social maturation of children, they were made to achieve them nine or eleven years of age and preceded their adoption as a full member of the archaic collective.1 Final rituals preceded by a more or less long preparation for the transition from ignorance to knowledge, from irresponsibility to debt, to the serene childhood to disciplined maturity. A group of boys, living in isolation from the whole community, she studied under the guidance of the venerable members of the genus hunt, fight, attached to the sacred and magical knowledge. (Initiation of girls for many reasons was carried out, as a rule, within the community, less radical, more intimate and individualized). Only after the cycle of special training neophytes were allowed to participate in the dedication ceremony, during which tested (sometimes quite brutally and painfully) their will, courage, stamina, endurance, checks the quality of the assimilated experience. Ritual ceremonies were accompanied by songs, dances, bonfires were held at the light, in the presence of all members of the tribe. All this gave a special solemnity of the event, aimed at maximizing effective impact on the psyche and behavior of the initiates, reinforce in their minds an idea of ​​the qualitative change in their social status, to emphasize the special importance of the transition from one community to another age group, inspire complete mastery of the new social role.

Since ancient man lived at least half as much as the present, the transition from childhood to adulthood was very short-lived (usually less than one year). As a result of Cultural Revolution, extending the period of preparation of the child for adult life due to a shift from physical to intellectual criteria of adulthood, all the adolescence of modern man is stretched by age and dissected in its constituent initiation ritual. However, as the inherited mechanisms of stress inherent in the very different conditions and excessive from the standpoint of today, initiating mechanisms remain archaic and sometimes erupt in the social or in biologically destructive forms. Especially that with the abolition of public and state institutions "initiation" the younger generation has lost an effective tool of regulation of social and psychological maturation of the individual. Such blocking of phylogeny and ontogeny, due to the need to initiate the guided subconsciously manifested in aggressive and antisocial behavior spontaneously emerging teenage groups and/or psychiatric disorders, typologically similar with key experiences during initiation.5−7 At the same time it demonstrates the surrogates of all three categories of initiation: the social and age; referentially-group; mystical-existential. In those cases, when it comes to rough mental pathology is endogenously determined (procedural or hereditary-constitutional) somatogenic (endocrine) and/or exogenous-organic (encephalopathy) factors perverted manifestations initiation act in the general context of the so-called "pathological puberty crisis".9 For easier predominantly psychogenic (sociogenic)-dizontogeneticheskim manifestations surrogate or "pseudo" -initsiatsii include such "teen syndromes" as "metaphysical (Philosophical) intoxication" and adjacent thereto sektomaniya, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, Werther syndrome, some forms of Internet addiction, self-harm syndrome (suicidal and nesuitsidalnogo) behavior and overvalued fascination with extreme sports, pathological forms grouping reactions10 and the initiation spontaneously organized in the form of absorbent participate in informal youth associations and so on.

The older the teen, the greater the role played in his behavior motifs associated with puberty and sexual attraction. However, in traditional ceremonies of initiation such things as puberty age and the right to marriage shall not be taken into account as the main reference point of initiation - a social maturity, which is at the dawn of civilization, well ahead of the onset of puberty.3 Now hyper adolescent, suppressed social and cultural restrictions, it is a potent releaser for respective instinctive behavior determinants. The problem lies in the fact that initiating neophytes are more "primativeness"11 in comparison not only to adults but also, often, with themselves in dopubertatnogo age (since hormonal crisis weakens their ability to reasonable control over the implementation of instinctive patterns).13 Hence archaic versatility of their behavior has changed little since the time it was recorded in the genetic program. Adults are members of society, growing up watching teenagers instinctively expect them to demonstrate knowledge of evidence, readiness and desire to meet the requirements of sacred ideals and social norms (this is also recorded in human genetic program and updated in the context of a mature behavior). In the same time, Aversion exhibited archaic behaviors modern adult world looks in the eyes of teenagers (directed unconscious social instincts) as "double standards", "double standards" that will disorient them and cause a chronically stressful feeling of uselessness to society, provoking protest-oppositional behavior (from aggressive to suicidal). Removing the protective barrier antisuitsidalnogo (soldered with survival instinct) facilitated transport of fancy in reality the presence of multiple lives a player assimilated in computer games.12 Aggressive option protest-oppositional behavior and demonstration of their own "maturity" in the form of reactions of emancipation (the abandonment of the children's obedience and defending the right to independent decision-making, often divorced from the realities of life because of their lack of knowledge) is usually not accompanied by a willingness to take responsibility for own actions.

Nevertheless, each new generation of neophytes received hormonal signal on reaching a certain degree of psycho-physiological maturity, feels an instinctive need to show "adult" phenotype (physical and social courage, strength, agility, endurance, ability to endure the pain and humiliation, sexual consistency, loyalty group , its ideals, rituals, matching its external attributes and norms of behavior).Biologists believe that the physiological need for the ritual of initiation due to fluctuations in the level of endorphins age, relative deficiency which stably compensated during the training regular physical and psychological stress loads contributing known to release in the blood morphine neuropeptides.13 And if the company does not offer effective channels of this program (consisting of ceremonies separation interim period and rites inclusions), they are formed spontaneously, in accordance with the basic points modules. The latter include "separation" from the adult society; fusion with peer group and its subjection domestic laws; aggressive forays with her to the adult area (by marking-destructive vandalism in trains to demonstratively cynical sex in the subway); symbolic rituals of the "death of the old and the revival of a new status"; 'Immersion in mental chaos and merging with the sacral manner "; "Worship - rise"; "Stay in an altered state of consciousness"; "Familiarity with magical knowledge"; "Scoring publicly exploits"; "Demonstration of their physical and mental endurance"; "Body markings using paint, self-harm and damage"; "Unification of clothing, hairstyles, demeanor, slang"; "Test hunger, isolation and silence"; "Social oath-sworn", etc. Every adult generation (based on their own congenitally acquired experience the transformation of quantity into quality) checks the validity of the above demonstrations and their compliance with the socio-cultural realities of today. The current criteria for adulthood different from even those that were only a hundred years ago and six Nekrasov's "little man with the claw" looks perhaps more socially mature than today's teenager. That is, in fact, cultural revolution (when faced with an imperfect, but genetically fixed heritage of biological evolution) provokes the preservation and complexity of the conflict "Fathers and Sons".

Due to their own insecurity adult attitude of society to the juveniles in the initiation phase and behaving often unpredictable and dangerous, characterized by increased tolerance. This may explain the phenomenon observed in very many nations. It lies in the fact that during the trial period to spend (including under the leadership of their teachers) can with impunity to raid the community, to steal and rob, to feast, to enrich themselves at the expense of the community. Perhaps these forays once served as a rehearsal for future military campaigns. Wary-indulgent ambivalence teenagers due to the fact that they are not defenders of society, but in many ways, "the warriors." While the soldiers from the "other world" (sometimes not managed like a zombie), prone to cohesion and self-organization, which is manifested, in particular, in spontaneously emerging youth subcultures, modifying the behavior of teenagers from the superficial and transient fashion following to total immersion in subkulturalny lifestyle, full of social and ideological deviations. Conventionally, the types of behavior generated they can be labeled as "aggressive"; "Depressed"; "Hedonistic"; "Rùskovye".11 Less brutal manifestations of youth subcultures are planned with the help of internet mass action scenario type flash mob (instant crowd), have become popular in recent years. by type formed by their behavior can be described as "aggressive"; "Depressed"; "Hedonistic"; "Rùskovye".11 Less brutal manifestations of youth subcultures are planned with the help of internet mass action scenario type flash mob (instant crowd), have become popular in recent years. By type formed by their behavior can be described as "aggressive"; "Depressed"; "Hedonistic"; "Rùskovye".11 Less brutal manifestations of youth subcultures are planned with the help of internet mass action scenario type flash mob (instant crowd), have become popular in recent years.

The formation of all modifications takes place in the presence of sexual stimulation, which is superimposed on often poorly differentiated teenage hyper sexuality, becomes a kind of "glue" that binds the main part of the subculture. Subjectively attractive to adolescents (up to the formation of psychological dependence on it) youth subculture is due to the fact that belonging to her fictitious addresses its main age problems (group membership, identity, search for "meaning of life" and an example to follow, the sexual needs and etc.). To join (including through information on the Internet) to a particular bandwagon, consonant with its own psycho, a teenager is no longer looking for other ways to implement universal age-related reactions.2 Ethological same overtones of life of youth subculture is its organization in compliance with the previously marked rites of initiation. In this case, at least 5% of the persons participating in the subcultural practices in need of social rehabilitation with the help of a psychologist or psychiatrist.11

All are more common among divorced from real life and deprived of labor education of adolescents it is naive and magical worldviews on social dependence, a kind of "antiinitsiatsiya". It is accompanied by a rejection of the study and of any labor, cynical planning continued existence at the expense of the parents or by the mythical revenues from those anticipated winnings in online games. Often, for this compound hedonistic desire for "the sweet life" and the weak will of teenage standing characteristic of this age apathetic depression. For these adolescents Hospitalization is sometimes the only prevention of formation of computer and other dependence.17−20 It is known that in adolescents, early starts earning, initiation occurs much less dramatic and less conflict with the older generation in comparison with "pure" schoolboys. This raises the question of a serious organization of labor education of adolescents in general and occupational therapy in specialized institutions teen. Since the period of exacerbation unconsciously archetypal primativeness role of the frontal cortex unable to take on any parents (due to the lack of cultural traditions of subordination older), or social institutions (no pioneers, no scouts or Komsomol), in front of such a teenager often remain only two organizational adaptation option - a specialized boarding school for difficult or psychiatric hospital. In order not to become like a prison isolates, both should operate in accordance with the socio-biological and traditional-cultural mechanisms of initiation, transforming, figuratively speaking, Gaidar gang Bears Kvakina in Timur command (with minimal losses for society and complications for adolescents themselves).

For medical institutions, developmentally oriented (reconstructive-conductive) Psychotherapy (uniting in a single context of mechanisms of positive regression and psihoelevatsii to the zone of proximal development) examines the entire period of treatment and correction process as a time-limited and eventful and information during the life of the client patient , the passage of which should end with an objective and a subjective transfer it to a new psycho-physiological, social and psychological status, zapechat evaemym aggressively heroic initiation ceremony.21,22 Focused on the initiation of treatment and correctional work involves a significant revision of the traditional design of the organization of the adolescent psychiatric units. The whole stay of a teenage boy in a hospital should be built in accordance with the principles of emotional stress psychotherapy (for V.E.Rozhnovu) and remind "basic training" in the army, the passage which ends with taking the oath, meaning for the adolescent and his family entry into new social and personal status.8  Compliance with these principles implies maximum saturation sensory, emotional and patient information channels of perception, which in itself is capable of suppressing production of psychopathology13 and hedonistically stain their cumulative effect. This "school of courage" is fully consistent with the basic principle of children's and adolescent psychotherapy - "joyful growing up."



Conflicts of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.


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