Submit manuscript...
Journal of
eISSN: 2373-6445

Psychology & Clinical Psychiatry

Research Article Volume 10 Issue 5

Mental health and victimization: an exploratory study in prions of Cape Verde

Ana Rita Conde,1 Jorge Dias,1 Teresa Souto,2 Pedro Gamito3

1Faculty of Psychology, Education and Sport, Lusophone University of Porto, HEI-Lab: Digital Human-Environment Interaction Lab, Portugal
2University of Cape Verde, University of Santiago, Cape Verde
3Lusophone University of Humanities and Technologies of Lisbon, HEI-Lab: Digital Human-Environment Interaction Lab, Portugal

Correspondence: Ana Rita Conde, Assistant Professor, Lusophone University of Porto, Rua Augisto Rosa 24, Porto, Portugal, Tel +351 222 073 230

Received: February 08, 2019 | Published: September 9, 2019

Citation: Conde AR, Dias J, Souto T, et al. Mental health and victimization: an exploratory study in prisons of Cape Verde. J Psychol Clin Psychiatry. 2019;10(5):172?179. DOI: 10.15406/jpcpy.2019.10.00649

Download PDF


Background: There is insufficient information available regarding the psychopathological characteristics of the inmate population in low-middle-income countries as Cape Verde.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mental disorders in a sample of Cape Verdean inmates and explore its’ relation with victimization in the prison context.

Participants and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 5 prisons of Cape Verde. 402 subjects were included in stratified convenience sample and assessed with Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 25 software applying descriptive and inferential statistical measures.

Results: Inmate´s mean age was 31, 16 years, mainly men (96%), single (87,6%) from Cape Verde (90,8%) with a basic level of education. 62.9% reported substance use problems. According to the psychopathological dimensions included in BSI, paranoid ideation, obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms stand out either in the sample or in the 2 sub-samples. Symptomatology was significantly higher among victims namely in interpersonal sensitivity), anxiety and hostility. The increasing reoccurrence of victimization in the past 12 months is associated with an increase in the severity of symptoms.

Conclusion: Victimization and mental health problems should be identified as early as possible to enable joint and combined intervention, given the negative impact of psychopathological manifestations on the reintegration of prisoners in society affecting the reintegration of prisoners into society.

Keywords: prevalence, psychopathology, victimization, inmate population, brief symptom inventory, mental health


BSI, brief symptom inventory; LMIC, low-middle-income countries; M, mean; MA, missing answers; SD, standard deviation; T, test value


In 2004, the World Health Organization concerned with the scarce prevalence of studies on psychopathologic characteristics of the prison population in different cultural and socioeconomic contexts that could reveal the impact of individual, familiar, social, economic, and environmental factors on mental health highlighted the need to develop research on the topic in low-middle-income countries.1,2

Mental health in the prison environment

Worldwide, the prison population has increased in numbers, reaching around 11 million people, however the number with serious mental disorders (psychosis, major depression, and antisocial personality disorder) is unknown.1,3 In Cape Verde, the total prison population is 1549 (according to the national prison administration, via U.S. State Department human rights report - September 2018) and represents an occupancy level of 109,4%.4

According to Burneo-Garcés & Pérez-García,1 mental health in the prison environment requires special attention, given to the fact that mental illness is significantly higher when compared with the general population,5 turning into a major public health problem.6 This becomes particularly relevant in low-middle-income countries (LMICs), where the prevalence of severe mental illness clearly increases.1,5 Additionally, the prison context foresees a number of characteristics such as: confines physical space, restricted movement, constant surveillance, forced coexistence, and lack of privacy which may promote or potentiate mental.1,6 For Burneo-Garcés & Pérez-García,1 special attention needs to be drawn to violence in the prison context, often a result of situational factors such as coercion and victimization. The insufficient information available regarding psychopathological characteristics of Cape Verde´s prison population compromises additional considerations on the subject.

From Gemeda´s perspective, “crime, incarceration and mental disorders are directly related. That is, crime fallouts to incarceration, while incarceration induces behavioral disorders”.7 As an example, the author mentions South Africa, where more than 70% of the inmates are in prison due to violent crimes with psychosocial problems as consequence.

Victimization in the prison environment

The prison setting is conducive to victimization due to the characteristics of the prison population and the oppressive nature of prisons.8,9 Research on prison victimization, despite the variability of prevalence rates resulting from data collection procedures and instruments used,9,10 indicate high values that may reach 80%.9,11 According to Blitz et al.8 the rate of victimization in prison settings is three times higher than in violent contexts in the community, and seclusion increases the risk of being victimized seven times.

In addition, investigation also indicates a pattern of multiple victimization in the prison environment, indicating that one is rarely the victim of a single type of victimization and / or one perpetrator. Once victimized, the likelihood of suffering further victimization increases9 and most inmates are subject to different types of violence.12,13

The worrying values ​​of victimization in this context have been pointed out by several studies conducted in different countries, both in North America,9 South America,14 Europe13 and Africa.15

A study of 7,000 prisoners from various prisons in the United Study reveals rates of 68% of victimization by other prisoners and of 74% by staff members.9 In turn, a study conducted by Steiner and Mead in 2016,16 in several US prisons, indicates that more than half of prisons reported over 2.5 episodes of violence per 100 prisoners in the previous year and about 30% of prisons reported 5 violent episodes. In Europe, a Spanish study of 2018 indicates values ​​of more than 50%13 and, in Portugal; another recent study suggests values ​​of 25%.17 Regarding South America, as well as African countries, the studies focus on descriptions of poor prison conditions, violations of prisoners' human rights and in violence rates. Biondi's description of the violent episodes and massacres that occurred in Brazilian prisons14 and Sarkin's work on African prisons15 stand out, noting that, despite very violent contexts for prisoners, the rates of violence are inferior to the one´s of prisons in South America. Overall the literature and research on prison victimization is consensual about the victimizing and violent nature of the prison environment.9

Mental health and prison victimization

Literature presents prison victimization as having negative consequences on prisioners´ mental health and having consequences both in prison and in their reintegration in society.12,1 Victimized inmates have higher levels of anxiety, depression, anger, isolation and hostility during seclusion.9,19 In addition, victimization during reclusion has been linked to antisocial behavior and aggression, increasing the risk of criminal recidivism.20 Boxer, Middlemass and Delorenzo18 indicate that inmates who suffered prison victimization or who witnessed violent victimization presented worse adjustment when returned to freedom, namely with the adoption of violent and antisocial behaviors. Also, Zweig and colleagues21 report that prisoners who are physically assaulted or threatened develop hostility and depression, increasing the likelihood of resorting to violent criminal behavior and substance use after release. Specifically, prison victimization leads to hostility and, when restored to freedom, this hostility partly leads to criminal behavior, including the most violent.21 Victimization in prison also leads to depression and, when restored to freedom, depression facilitates involvement in substance use.21 On the other hand, the literature suggests that those inmates who present previous mental health problems as being at greater risk of suffering victimization. It is the prisoners with mental health problems who are most victimized when compared to those who report no mental problems9,22 and victimization magnifies and exacerbates mental health problems.9,18

Study purpose and significance

A review of the literature signalizes mental health problems as prevalent in the prison population.1,5 Victimization is also a recurring phenomenon in the prison environment,8,11 and prisoners with mental health problems have an increased risk of being victimized.9,22 Being the victim of some form of violence in prison has negative consequences for adjustment. And in the case of inmates already with mental health problems, victimization increases their severity.9,18 As far as Cape Verde is concerned, little is known about inmates mental health and the phenomenon of victimization, and even less about the effects of victimization on their mental health. Thus, it is necessary to establish clear indicators of mental health problems for the Cape Verdean inmate population and to analyse whether victimized inmates differ from non-victimized ones, in order to develop intervention strategies that consider their specificity.

Objectives of the study

The aim of this study was to analyse the current prevalence of psychiatric symptoms that are clinically significant among 402 inmates in five Cape Verde prisons using the psychopathological dimensions and indexes of the Portuguese adaptation of the BSI.23 In this study, an attempt has been made to explore whether psychopathological symptoms were significantly different in a subsample of participants who reported being victims.

Material and methods


In this study, two self-report questionnaires were applied:

  1. A questionnaire created and designed by the authors on socio-demographic, criminal and prison characterization and
  2. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) developed by Derogatis, translated and adapted for the Portuguese population by Canavarro.23

The first instrument assessed three distinct types of information: socio-demographic and criminal data (first and second section), and the occurrence of victimization in prison (third section) using the answers to dichotomic questions. Socio-demographic data regarded sex, age, profession, literacy; the criminal section addressed typology of crime and sentence, number of detentions and recidivism. The section on victimization, focused on its occurrence throughout imprisonment, and specifically in the last 12 months. It also inquired about: the number of experiences over these two periods (using a Likert-type scale-none, once, twice, three or more times), the perpetrator (inmates, staff, both) and victimization´s type (sexual, physical, verbal and threat).

To obtain indicators of psychopathology, BSI23 was used in order to evaluates psychopathological symptoms, assessing nine dimensions of symptomatology (somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism) and outline level of emotional disturbance, using two indicators: general index of symptoms and index of positive symptoms (as described in Table 1). The instrument consists of 53 items, with a response on a likert scale, ranging from never to many times.


 Interpretation of high scores


Focus on physical health-related issues


Experience of cognitions, impulses and behaviors that are persistent, unwanted and irresistible to the subject

Interpersonal sensitivity

Symptoms and behaviors related to interpersonal inadequacy, discomfort and inferiority compared to others


Experience of depression across different response modalities


Nervousness, tension, generalized anxiety and panic attacks


Thoughts, emotions, and behaviors of the negative affective state of anger.

Phobic anxiety

Persistent irrational and unreasonable fear, leading to avoidance that causes disruption in the individual´s daily life

Paranoid ideation

Disturbed cognitive functioning - projective thinking, hostility, suspicion, fear of loss of autonomy and delusions.


Isolation, schizoid features, primary symptoms of schizophrenia (hallucinations and thought control), psychosis.

General index of symptoms

Weighting of the intensity of the discomfort experienced with the number of symptoms reported

Index of positive symptoms

Mean intensity of all symptoms that were reported

Table 1 Dimensions/indexes of the brief symptom inventory
Source BSI23

It should be noted that this tool has a strong international reference as being used across different countries and cultures. In the absence of validated instruments in this area for Cape Verde´s population and considering that both countries are culturally closer, the authors opted for the use of version adapted to the Portuguese population and the respective reference values.


The sample studied represents approximately 25% of the prison population of Cape Verde (1567 inmates). It's a stratified convenience sample that includes 402 inmates and meets the following criteria:

  1. Prisons in the country - Prison of City of Praia, Prison of Mindelo, Prison of Santo Antão, Prison of Island of Sal and the Prison of Island of Fogo.
  2. Typology of crime (property crime versus crime against people).

In the sample studied, 96% of the participants are males with a mean age of 31.16 (SD=8,568) and Cape Verdean nationals (90.8%) and mostly single (87.6%). In terms of education, 59.5% reported a basic level of education and about 15.4% have no education at all. 62.9% have a history of substance use problems, being 33.8% poly-consumer.

This sample is composed by two distinct groups that constitute different subsamples - victimized inmates (those who reported having been victims of some violence in prison) and non-victimized inmates (those who reported never having been victims of any violence in prison).

The subsample of the victims consists of 149 inmates, 142 men (95.3%) and 7 women (4.7%). Of these 91.3% are of Cape Verdean nationality, most are under 30 years old (58.4%), single (85.2%) and have children (56%). About 57.7% reported a basic level of education, 15.4% have no instruction and cannot read or write. 71.8% have a history of substance use problems, particularly poly-consumption (38.9%).

The subsample of the non-victimized includes 250 inmates, 241 men (96.4%) and 9 women (3.6%). 90.8% are of Cape Verdean nationality, most are over 30 years old (55.6%), single (91.9%) and have children (50.3%). About 60% have a basic level of education, 15.6% have no education and cannot read or write. 58% have a history of substance use problems as well as polydrug use (30.8%) (Table 2).


(N = 402)

Victims subsample

Non victims subsample







386 (96)

142 (95.3)

241 (96.4)


16 (4)

7 (4.7)

9 (3.6)

Marital status


352 (87.6)

137 (91.9)

213 (85.2)

In a nonmarital relationship

26 (6.5)

1 (0.7)

13 (5.2)


15 (3.7)

8 (5.4)

18 (7.2)


3 (0.7)

1 (0.7)

2 (0.8)

Missing Answers (MA)

6 (1.5)

2 (1.3)

4 (1.6)




217 (54)

75 (50.3)

140 (56.0)


182 (45.3)

72 (48.3)

109 (43.6)


3 (0.7)

2 (1.3)

1 (0.4)

Level of education


62 (15.4)

23 (15.4)

39 (15.6)


239 (59.5)

86 (57.7)

150 (60.0)

High School

32 (8.0)

15 (10.1)

17 (6.8)

Higher Education

13 (3.2)

2 (1.3)

11 (4.4)


56 (13.9)

23 (15.49

33 (13.2)


Cape Verdean

365 (90.8)

136 (91.3)

227 (90.8)


4 (1.0)

0 (0.0)

4 (1.6)


3 (0.7)

0 (0.0)

3 (1.2)


3 (0.7)

0 (0.0)

2 (0.8)


2 (0.5)

0 (0.0)

2 (0.8)


1 (0.2)

1 (0.7)

0 (0.0)


1 (0.2)

1 (0.7)

0 (0.0)


23 (5.7)

10 (6.7)

12 (4.8)

 Age groups

16 - 21 years

36 (9.0)

25 (16.8)

11 (4.4)

22 - 24 years

52 !12.9)

20 (13.4)

31 (12.4)

25 - 29 years

107 (26.6)

42 (28.2)

62 (26.0)

30 - 34 years

92 (22.9)

34 (22.8)

57 (22.8)

35 - 39 years

53 (13.3)

13 (8.7)

40 (16.0)

40 - 49 years

42 (10.4)

12 (8.1)

30 (12.0)

50 - 59 years

11 (2.7)

1 (0.7)

9 (3.6)

60 and more years

3 (0.7)

0 (0.0)

3 (1.2)


6 (1.5)

2 (1.3)

4 (1.6)

Substance problems


253 (62.9)

107 (71.8)

145 (58.0)


144 (35,8)

40 (26.8)

102 (40.8)

Type of substance


26 (6.5)

13 (8.7)

13 (5.2)


136 (33.8)

58 (38.9)

77 (30.8)


43 (10.7)

22 (14.8)

21 (8.4)


6 (1.5)

2 (1.3)

4 (1.6)


22 (5.5)

4 (2.7)

18 (7.2)

Other Drugs

9 (2.2)

4 (2.7)

5 (2.0)

1 Three men did not answer the question whether or not they suffered victimization in prison.

Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics

Data collection

The present study was requested by the General Direction of Prisons and Social Reintegration of Cape Verde, aiming to establish a diagnosis of intervention needs of the inmate population. Therefore, researchers contacted all Cape Verde Prison Offices to schedule data collection. The instruments were administrated in September 2018, in a group setting monitored by the researchers. Participation was voluntary and informed consent was made available to participants in order to clarify the aim of the study and ensure their anonymity (any data that could identify the participant would be concealed).

Data analysis

Using descriptive statistics, demographics and criminal characteristics of the inmates were analyzed. The occurrence of victimization and the existence of psychopathology in Cape Verde’s inmates was also examined applying descriptive and inferential measures (T-Test, Levene´s Test, Spearman's correlation coefficient).


This study addressed two major questions: (i) the prevalence of psychopathological disorders using BSI as screening measure in a national sample of Cape Verde´s inmates and (ii) to what extent victimization interferes on reported psychiatric symptoms.

Prevalence of psychopathological symptoms

Regarding sample´s psychopathological symptoms, all scales and indexes are above average for the general population, showing values of emotional disturbance. However, considering victimized and non-victimized inmates, clinical values increase for the former and slightly decrease for the latter. Although both have values of emotional disturbance, considering the value of the index of positive symptoms that, according to Canavarro23, when equal to or greater than 1.7 represents emotionally disturbed individuals, the victimized inmate are the most emotionally disturbed (M=2.04: SD=0.55) (Table 3).


Sample (N=399)

Victims Subsample (N=149)

Non victims subsample

General Population

Population diagnosed with emotional disorders



































Interpersonal sensitivity












































Phobic anxiety











Paranoid ideation






















General Index of Symptoms











Index of positives symptoms











Table 3 Values of BSI psychopathological dimensions and indexes and reference values for the Portuguese population (general population & population diagnosed with emotional disorders)

BSI psychopathological dimensions

Non-Victims Subsample

Victims Subsample

























Table 4 BSI psychopathological dimensions with statistically significant differences between subsamples
Note: *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001

Considering that the psychopathological dimensions included in BDI may be seen as expression of specific symptomatology, in this sample, paranoid ideation, obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms are noteworthy. The same pattern applies if one considers the two subsamples.

Victimization interference on reported psychiatric symptoms

Participants who reported being victims had significantly higher symptomatology than those who didn´t report in following dimensions: interpersonal sensitivity (t (352)=-2,590, p=.010), anxiety (t (213,747)=-3,285, p=.001) and hostility (t (234,136)=-4,600, p = .000).

Participants who reported being victims had mean values for all dimensions of the BSI scale significantly higher than the cut-off points for the general population and for the population diagnosed with emotional disorders. Only in the paranoid ideation dimension, there is no significant difference between the mean value of this sample and the mean value of the population diagnosed with emotional disorders. For values above the cut-off point for the population with emotional disturbances, the dimension with the highest frequency was paranoid ideation (n=72), followed by psychoticism (n=43) and the lowest the depression (n=17).

The inmates who reported being victims at least once in the last 12 months had a profile similar to that described above, with significant differences for the same mean cut- off values of the BSI scale dimensions. The exception is the psychoticism dimension, where such differences no longer occur. Paranoid ideation (n=49) and psychoticism (n = 30) were also reported as the dimensions with the most participants quoting above the cut-off points for the emotionally disturbed population. Depression was, once again, the dimension with the least responses above the cut-off point (n=12).

Except for the anxiety dimension (F (2.46)=5,388, p=.008), where those who reported being a victim 3 times or more scored significantly higher than those who reported being a victim only, the other dimensions of the BSI scale did not vary significantly with the frequency of victimization.

Using the Spearman correlation coefficient between the number of victimizations suffered in the last 12 months and the BSI scales and indexes, there were statistically significant positive correlations between somatization (rsp=.296, p=.033) , phobic anxiety (rsp=.335, p=.015), paranoid ideation (rsp=.289, p=.036) and psychoticism (rsp =.271, p=.047), meaning that as the number of episodes of victimization increases the severity of psychopathological symptomatology increases also.


In the present study, the prison population, globally considered, presents indicators of mental health problems, presenting higher values than the normative population. These data corroborate the literature indicating that psychopathology seems to be prevalent in the prison context.1,5 On the other hand, about 142 inmates (37%) reported having been victimized, which is in line with prevalence studies that identify this phenomenon as recurrent and with problematic proportions.8‒11

Regarding the differences in symptomatology between the victimized and non-victimized inmates, the former the reported considerably higher indicators of interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety and hostility, relating to difficulties in interpersonal relationships, nervousness and tension and feelings of anger, can promote antisocial and violent behavior. Indeed, some authors report that prison victimization has an impact on criminal behavior and violence,24,25 pointing out that aggressive and violent behavior in prison may be a coping strategy used by prisoners to deal with victimization and its effects on prison.26,27

On the other hand, victimized prisoners presented mean values ​​for all dimensions of the BSI scale significantly higher than the cutoff points for the general population and for the population diagnosed with emotional disorders, with paranoid ideation and psychoticism having the highest values and depression the lowest one. Being victimized and having depressive symptoms resulting from victimization in prison is considered as a sign of weakness, so many victims may resort to violent expressions or present a disorganized pattern of functioning to respond or deal with victimization and the inherent psychological distress.25,27

It was also found that the number of episodes of victimization suffered in the last 12 months is positively correlated with higher scores of somatization, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism, indicating the two phenomenon present a similar pattern in their evolution. Although there are no studies on the impact of multiple and repeated victimization in the prison, this data corroborates the literature on multiple victimization in different populations stating that as the total number of victimization experiences increases, the greater the impact on psychopathological symptomatology. following the pattern dose-effect.28,29

Finally, it should be noted that, similarly to what occurs in other types and contexts of victimization, there are no specific psychopathological syndrome or frameworks for prison victimization, but they may have some indicators of emotional distress and other negative emotional reactions (anger, hostility, frustration).24,25 Literature in this area conclude that coexistence in a hostile environment and victimization can compromise psychosocial adaptation resulting in aggressive behaviors, anger, anxiety, and depression.1


Higher expression of the dimensions interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety and hostility among victims with statistical significance when compared to non-victims probably explained by the psychological impact of a traumatic event such as victimization. As noted, specific clinical disorder has not yet been identified, however different negative emotional manifestations and mental health problems may arise that interfere with the ability to reintegrate properly into society. In fact, it is consensual in the literature that prisoners who are victims in prison have greater difficulties in adapting to prison and reintegration into society30 and are more likely to recur to violence24. It is therefore urgent to create preventive and remedial strategies in view of the phenomenon and its potential effects on mental health.

Mental disorder also increased risks of physical victimization. Men in prison with any mental disorder were 1.6 times (prisoner-on-prisoner) and 1.2 times (staff-on-prisoner) higher than men with no mental disorder to be physically victimized.31 Thus, victimization and mental health issues should be addressed together as both problems increase the risk of victimization and the potential adverse effects of victimization on mental health. Undoubtedly, an integral and comprehensive analysis of inmates’ mental and physical health and its risk and protective factors would contribute to establish effective strategies involving promotion, prevention and intervention in this environment. This would result in an optimization of the resources available for the assessment and treatment of inmates in Cape Verde prisons.

For the first time BSI data are provided for a sample of inmates of Cape Verdean prison population. Strength of this study is related to its methodological approach:

  1. All prisons were involved.
  2. A rigorous research protocol was applied.
  3. psychologists outside of the forensic settings conducted the fieldwork, which reduces the risk of response bias.

Regarding limitation, in the present study, there is minimal representation of females in the studied samples. Moreover, it is reasonable to raise some concerns regarding the impossibility to use an instrument to assess mental health previously validated for the Cape Verdean population. In any case, it is convenient to emphasize the need to have instruments that are sensitive to the cultural factors of each population.1 It should also mention the tendency of self-report questionnaires to overestimate the prevalence rates.

Funding details




Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Burneo-Garcés C, Perz-Garcia M. Prevalence of Psychopathological features in South American prisons using the personality assessment inventory. Behav Psychol. 2018;26(1):177‒194.
  2. World Health Organization. Prevention of mental disorders: Effective interventions and policy options. Summary report. Genebra; 2004. 67 p.
  3. Fazel S, Danesh J. Serious mental disorder in 23 000 prisoners: A systematic review of 62 surveys. 2002;359(9306):545‒550.
  4. Institute for Criminal Policy Research, ICPR. World prison brief database. 2017.
  5. Fazel S, Seewald K. Severe mental illness in 33,588 prisoners worldwide: Systematic review and meta-regression Br J of Psychiatry. 2012;200(5):364‒373.
  6. Fazel S, Baillargeon J. The health of prisoners. 2011;377(9769):956‒965.
  7. Gemeda TT. Prevalence and Predictors of Psycho-pathological Symptoms among Inmates in Dilla Correction Center, SNNPR, Ethiopia. African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies. 2014;9(1):171‒186.
  8. Blitz CL, Wolff N, Shi J. Physical victimization in prison: The role of mental illness. Int J Law and Psychiatry. 2008;31(5):385‒393.
  9. Schapell A, Docherty M, Boxer P. Violence and Victimization During Incarceration: Relations to Psychosocial Adjustment During Reentry to the Community. Violence Vict. 2016;31(2):361‒378.
  10. Wolff N, Shi J, Bachman R. Measuring victimization inside prisons: Questioning the questions. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2008;23(10):134‒1362.
  11. Allison MD, Ireland JL. Staff and prisoner perceptions of physical and social environmental factors thought to be supportive of bullying: The role of bullying and fear of bullying. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 2010;33(1):43‒51.
  12. Listwan SJ, Daigle LE, Hartman JL, et al. Poly-victimization risk in prison: the influence of individual and institutional factors. J Interpers Violence. 2014;29(13):2458‒2481.
  13. Caravaca-Sánchez F, Wolff N. Understanding polyvictimization in prison: prevalence and predictors among men inmates in Spain. J Interpers Violence. 2018.
  14. Biondi K. Prison Violence, Prison Justice: The Rise of Brazil's PCC. NACLA Report on the Americas. 2017;49(3):341‒346.
  15. Sarkin J. Prisons in Africa. Oxford research encyclopedia, politics. USA: Oxford university press; 2019.
  16. Steiner B, Meade B. Assessing the Link Between Exposure to a Violent Prison Context and Inmate Maladjustment. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 2016;32(4):328–356.
  17. Conde AR, Souto T, Ribeiro P, et al. Victimization prevalence in Prisons of Portugal. Forthcoming.
  18. Boxer P, Middlemass K, Delorenzo T. Effects on psychological adjustment following release. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 2009;36(8):793–807. 
  19. Picken J. The coping strategies, adjustment and well-being of male inmates in the prison environment. Internet Journal of Criminology. 2012:1‒29.
  20. Schappell A, Docherty M, Boxer P. Violence and victimization during incarceration: relations to psychosocial adjustment during reentry to the community. Violence Vict. 2016;31(2):361‒378.
  21. Zweig JM, Yahner J, Visher CA, et al. Using general strain theory to explore the effects of prison victimization experiences on later offending and substance use. The Prison Journal. 2015;95(1):84‒113.
  22. Wolff N, Blitz C, Shi J. Rates of Sexual Victimization in Prison for Inmates with and without mental disorders. Psychiatric Services. 2007;58(8):1087–1094.
  23. Canavarro MC. Psychopathological Symptom Inventory (BSI): A critical review of studies conducted in Portugal. In: Simões MR Machado, Gonçalves, Almeida LS, editors. Psychological Assessment: Validated Instruments for the Portuguese Population. Coimbra, Portugal: Quartet Publisher; 2007. 305‒330 p.
  24. Listwan S, Hanley D, Colvin M. The Prison Experience and Reentry: Examining the Impact of Victimization on Coming Home. Final Report. S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice. 2012.
  25. Peterson ZD, Voller EK, Polusny MA, et al. Prevalence and consequences of adult sexual assault of men: Review of empirical findings and state of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(1):1‒24.
  26. McCorkle RC. Fear of victimization and symptoms of psychopathology among prison inmates. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 1993;19(1-2):27‒41.
  27. Conde R, Gonçalves RA. Cumulative victimization in prison context: From individual intervention to institutional intervention. Victims of crime and violence. Practices for intervention. Psychiatry;
  28. Matos M, Conde R, Peixoto J. Lifetime multiple victimization among women: a systematic review of the literature. Psicol Soc. 2013; 25(3):602‒611.
  29. Scott-Storey K. Cumulative abuse: do things add up? An evaluation of the conceptualization, operationalization, and methodological approaches in the study of the phenomenon of cumulative abuse. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 2011;12(3):135‒150.
  30. Pérez DM, Gover AR, Tennyson KM, et al. Individual and Institutional Characteristics related to inmate victimization. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2010;54(3):378‒394.
  31. Fazel S, Hayes AJ, Bartellas K, et al. Mental health of prisoners: prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(9):871‒881.
Creative Commons Attribution License

©2019 Conde, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.