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eISSN: 2379-6359

Otolaryngology-ENT Research

Mini Review Volume 12 Issue 4

Training of students of physiotherapy, an antique look and postmodernist

Luisa Fernanda Becerra Ostos

Physiotherapist specialist in cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation, María Cano University Foundation, Colombia

Correspondence: Luisa Fernanda Becerra Ostos, Physiotherapist, specialist in cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation, María Cano University Foundation, Colombia, Tel (57) 3158252857

Received: August 08, 2020 | Published: August 20, 2020

Citation: Ostos LFB. Training of students of physiotherapy, an antique look and postmodernist. J Otolaryngol ENT Res. 2020;12(4):136?138. DOI: 10.15406/joentr.2020.12.00471

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With this article is to describe in general terms the areas least performed by physiotherapists and in the workplace; where a series of situations from developing their skills, either through ignorance and/or perform insecurity occur. In addition, it is important to raise awareness among universities, associations and bodies representing us at the government level, since their experiences contribute to unification of curricula, which are the backbone of every profession. Why different studies found that supports the curriculum of several universities pensums by major regions and departments could be observed in the same inequality and disadvantages that later are going to be facing the future graduates by the lack of skills in different areas of performance of the race. As consistent with the above, will result in an inequity in the competency framework, which in future will be an obstacle to compete scientifically with other races in the area of ​​health, such as medicine, therapy, dentistry and nursing. Finally, the process identity is emphasized at national and global level as described in our international representative World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) in terms of art, science and technique of physical therapy. And just to show that we are much more than a "massage" as we currently perceive and demonstrate the skills learned in the university cloister really promotion and prevention.

Keywords: physiotherapy, education, societies, competency based education


In the professional and educational framework of higher education; Several factors are immersed, such as the quality and performance of Physiotherapy teachers,1 which involves the analysis of competencies focused on being, doing, knowing and social,2 which has been developed for several years, through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1995 and consequently in 1992 with Law 30 that organizes the public service in higher education and in 1994 with Law 115 where establishes what corresponds to the general education law, among others. Taking the foregoing into account, these reforms led to the creation of curricula from modern sciences based on the quality standards established by the National Accreditation Council (CNA) and by the Ministry of Education in Colombia. However, it is vital that in the curricular field, not only a series of requirements are met, but that it transcends in strengthening the different dependencies that universities have created,3 but that unfortunately there is not a strong communication channel, especially when it comes to the humanities and scientific units. This is how various professions, including medicine, therapies, dentistry and nursing, speak in terms of competence from different perspectives such as: professional work in their different areas of performance and from pre-gradual training. In this way, it is vital that there are evaluation processes of said competences, through different assessment strategies; which makes it possible to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and effectiveness of the educational system in its management and thus be able to reward professional and pre-gradual competence.

It is vital to contextualize the meaning of "Competence" in general terms, which is complex because there are different theoretical supports that sustain it. One of them is according to Kane, where a professional is competent to the extent that he uses knowledge, skills, the attitudes and good judgment associated with their profession, in order to be able to develop it effectively in those situations that correspond to the field of their practice. Therefore, the competition belongs to the area of ​​know-how, to the demonstration itself, not so much to the accreditation or to the intention.4 The problem of higher education must answer several questions such as social problems, this carried out by knowledge professionals, but for this, the training of scientific researchers from different areas such as social, humanities and the arts where The latter includes the physiotherapy career, the other question that must be addressed is on the subject of interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity and innovation, but to carry it out, social analysis is necessary from the political, economic and cultural point of view, thus basing the work from the different performance issues of future physiotherapy professionals with critical thinking and systematization of experiences through research.5

Taking as an example, the career of Nursing, the need to clarify different terms referring to the idea of ​​competence has been reiterated, such as competence (competence in English), capacity (competency) and execution or performance (performance). That is, a professional can accredit being competent, but in a real situation not to demonstrate it: not to demonstrate knowledge, knowing how to be, know-how and good judgment, so it does not respond to the professional level of quality required in that situation. . Also, author Newble explained "clinical competence" by differentiating between what the student or physician should be able to do at an expected level of achievement and clinical performance, what the student or physician does in actual practice.4

Physiotherapy student competencies

A few years ago, physiotherapy began as a technical career and towards the 70s by Law 9 of 1976 it was regulated as a profession and in 1999 Law 528 of this same year was promulgated where it regulates the profession of physiotherapy in Colombia. Defining it as "a liberal profession in the health area with university education, whose subjects of attention are the individual, the family and the community and the environment in which it operates"6 and the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) defines it in terms of the art and science of physical treatment. In university training, learning for the professional training of the physiotherapist is approached mainly from the construction of knowledge. The teacher acts as a promoter of learning, facilitating the student's acquisition of professional knowledge, and its use, both in the academic context and in that of professional practice. Within the university framework, the professional graduation or exit skills required for undergraduate studies in Physiotherapy must coincide with the specific objectives that universities have set for said degree.7

The advantages of education based on the final competences of the physiotherapy student, among other disciplines, are numerous: it enhances the responsibility of the student by making them participate actively in their learning process; allows the application of different didactic methodologies depending on the subject and group dynamics; It makes it necessary to design the subjects in a practical and coherent way, allowing the distinction between the essential and the non-essential, rationalizing resources and providing greater cohesion in the training curriculum; it also enhances the role of the teacher as a specialist agent in the diagnosis and prescription of learning, facilitating agent of resources, and allows them to be aware of their contribution to the whole curriculum and their responsibility in the learning process.4

The definition of the physiotherapy student's competencies must be guided by professional competencies, so the student must know, and therefore must be evaluated, by the extra-professional factors that define the ideal of the competent professional for the student; and his progression in learning throughout his career. What the teacher teaches the student about the profession, what he sees and does at the different levels of practice, and the conclusions he draws from his experiences throughout the university career, are some of the parameters that the student incorporates to configure your ideal of professional competence. Therefore, Physiotherapy, as a practice of knowledge, has not been studied under an overall view that contemplates all its dimensions, or with the rigor and systematization required for its appropriation, which is important to propose studies that delve into it.8 For this, it is necessary to establish equality in the curricular networks in the HEIs (higher education institutions), where the competencies and integrity of the professional in physiotherapy and their daily work in the different areas of performance that are already established as They are clinical care, sports, occupational health, public health, administration and health management, basing its diagnosis and rehabilitation under the criteria of the CIF (International Classification of the Functioning of Disability and Health).9

History of physiotherapy curricula in Colombia

In 1930 the profession began as a technical career and many years later it was called a professional career, in the San Juan de Dios hospital, in the orthopedic and traumatology ward, nursing professionals dabbled with joint exercises and this is how they call it "Kinesitherapy". Which, was the first applicability that the (as) physiotherapists obtained in the development of their competences of that time. Considering his professional work from manual therapy such as massages and joint mobilizations to patients who were referred for orthopedic surgical interventions. As early as 1936, the National Institute of Physical Education (INEF), according to decree 1528, provided the sick with physical means for their rehabilitation. In 1952 to 1977, Colombia was influenced by developed countries such as the US, where the first Physiotherapy schools were born in ROCHESTER AND CHICAGO, supplying the epidemiological needs in terms of rehabilitation; It was considered as a technique for the management of the sequelae of polio, which was the epidemic of the time. In this way, a source of employment is generated where women assume this competence, executing it from their home.8

Consequently, in 1978 to 1994, a crisis arises in the scientific, political and social development paradigms at a global level, which leads to the search and formulation of new strategies that allow achieving the quality of life and well-being of the peoples.8 Taking into account the integral training as a health professional, it is necessary to merge the clinical aspect with the social one to create awareness that the integral word as a rehabilitating entity is applied in the sense of providing care and assistance to patients with different alterations in human body movement (MCH), for the application of different disciplinary techniques based on scientific methods for the production and application of knowledge.10 Already from a contemporary vision of the Physiotherapy career, it is aimed at all genders, and different social strata. Where its procedural framework goes beyond physical means to rehabilitate patients or users from the promotion and prevention in a particular or collective way. Where it has exclusive and prestigious techniques executed by different areas of professional and pre-gradual performance. Therefore, by highlighting the legal framework, it empowers us as independent and autonomous professionals in the management of our users, we can go to work in different places and it is not necessarily worked from the professional's home.

However, at the decentralization level there is a pluralization of the curricular framework of Physiotherapy, which is important to carry out a meticulous review by the most representative regions of the country, with their respective departments and main cities such as Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga. As a result of a pluralization, it leads to little consensus in the study plans, and other curricular aspects, which leads to the given competencies being a privilege or a disadvantage due to their training; since by not having a unification in Our curricula cannot be seen reflected in the comprehensive training that we as physiotherapists must have, to be participants in various areas of performance, where physiotherapy is not yet recognized in a powerful way in the social, scientific, among others. Unfortunately, many universities are still at the beginning of history that were only managed with physical means and mobilizations, limiting future graduates from venturing into different areas of performance where they can be potential in different areas. However, when new paradigms are presented with respect to Physiotherapy in Colombia, it has been biased in the classrooms, as it is a liberal and scientific thought, which goes beyond the proposed literature. It is from here that the need for a change arises, since the academic instances must define with greater force the knowledge of Physiotherapy as "Art, science and technique", which the associations of the profession have always kept in mind that we are governed under comprehensive training; and that our object of study goes beyond what was formerly known as massage and joint manipulations, and it is frustrating to perceive that there is no rigorous support compared to the developed countries where the Physiotherapy white paper has been designed.

Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that new paradigms of Physiotherapy emerge, from a joint perspective and contemplate all its areas of performance from the promotion and prevention with a greater proposal of research based on evidence with more scientific and union support. Consequently, given the current situation in physiotherapy, the question is: What is being done to change our professional destiny? Where is the management of the union instances in terms of those who write themselves? And is it worth being represented by people who don't care about our professional well-being? With a descriptive qualitative methodology, since it seeks to refer to the characteristics of the physiotherapy profession, which is the object of study of this article, as mentioned above. Throughout the writing, the facts, weaknesses and strengths that the profession currently presents in a country like Colombia are shown, where unfortunately we do not have the importance and position that we deserve as health professionals.


It is important to carry out a curricular consensus from the labor, academic, educational, and political aspects, among others, which involves the authors in a dynamic that requires various behaviors, activities, skills, knowledge, affections and basically results, depending on the areas of performance that are the physiotherapist is immersed. Therefore, it is essential that said unification is founded and justified, in order to determine its scope and perspectives in order to identify the benefits and consequences that after the application of a unified and equitable curricular framework, which will provide valuable elements to take a position that is the result of reflection and knowledge.11

Everything previously described was based on an article on the perception of the profile of the professional in physiotherapy where it is found that the lack of alignment of the curricular meshes between the institutions is a void that today the profession has since bosses or superiors do not They value knowledge competencies and the decision-making discrepancy is generated between the graduate and the employer.9


After the search and analysis of different literature on Physiotherapy based on developed countries, there has been progress as a race through the legislative component and through investigative processes, but there is still a gap in terms of the new paradigms of professional and pre-graduated competences, in order to be recognized from a comprehensive training. It is also very important to emphasize that there is a lack of unification in the curricular plans of study where our Achilles heel is, and it leads to a disadvantage as professionals to compete in different areas of performance with respect to other professions not only in the area of health but of the social sciences, among others. And finally, there is a lack of work of greater commitment and national impact, with more support from the union and governmental instances before the emergence of new paradigms, and in this way to be able to have a recognition as science, art and technique, in order to transcend from particularized form as the (as) basic physiotherapists for application of public positions and scientific projects as such. These types of articles are those that generate the input to improve these gaps and give the recognition that as professionals we deserve, they also serve as input for the development of the curriculum in the institutions. This article has no conflict of economic, political, labor or social interest. It is a review article, in order to unify and empower the profession of physiotherapy in Colombia and the world.



Conflicts of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest to disclose.




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