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eISSN: 2379-6359

Otolaryngology-ENT Research

Mini Review Volume 4 Issue 6

Race versus Incidence of Laryngeal Carcinoma Cross Sectional Study

Mazen Hammoud,1 Bachar Skaff,2 Hamdi Hamiyyeh2

1Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery specialist, Hammoud Hospital University Medical Center, Lebanon
2Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery Resident, Hammoud Hospital University Medical Center, Lebanon

Correspondence: , Tel 009617723888-1957

Received: May 27, 2016 | Published: November 2, 2016

Citation: Hammoud M, Skaff B, Hamiyyeh H (2016) Race versus Incidence of Laryngeal Carcinoma Cross Sectional Study. J Otolaryngol ENT Res 4(6): 00123. DOI: 10.15406/joentr.2016.04.00123

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wegener’s granulomatosis, supraglottic stenosis, supraglottic mass


Tobacco and alcohol use are a well-known risk factors of laryngeal carcinoma. Race is one of the important risk factors that showed according to previous studies that Cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx are more common among African Americans and whites than among Asians and Latinos. Gastroesophageal reflux disease: GERD can cause heartburn and this condition is believed to be a risk factor for development of Laryngopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and increase the chance of cancer of the esophagus.


The objective is to assess the incidence of laryngeal carcinoma in Palestinian and Lebanese citizens in south Lebanon.


Routine data were collected on the subjects such as smoking habits, alcohol abuse and food habits of all eligible individuals between the period of 2009 and 2015 that was diagnosed pathologically by squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in Hammoud Hospital University Medical Center (HHUMC), which is the largest medical center in south Lebanon. The data was taken from the medical records that were available in the hospital and every patient was phone called and a brief history was taken about smoking, alcohol abuse, GERD and food habits.1‒10


56 patients was diagnosed with laryngeal CA in the period between 2009 and 2015, they all was treated by total laryngectomy, 20 of them with neck dissection. 21 of them was complaining of GERD, equals 38% of the patients. They all smoked cigarettes on daily bases but every individual differ in quantity. They all used spices in their food same quality but every individual differ in quantity. Most common spices used: All spice, chili pepper, black pepper, white pepper, the seven spices (mixture of cumin, paprika, cloves, cinnamon, coriander and black pepper).11‒18

The study showed that 42 of the patients are Palestinians 75% of all patients who was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, although most of the populations in south Lebanon are Lebanese. Estimates of total population of Lebanon which is 4.400,000. A figure of 400,000 Palestinian refugees would mean that Palestinians constitute around 10% of the resident population of Lebanon. This means according to this study, Palestinian population has 15times more incidence of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma than Lebanese population.

Considering smoking habit; showed that Palestinian patients have a smoking rate higher than Lebanese patients. Considering alcohol abuse is equal in both races. Considering food habits showed that Palestinians uses more spices than Lebanese citizens (same quality of spices but more quantity), almost most of their food recipes have hot spices that for sure increase the risk factor of GERD that may also contribute in increasing the incidence of laryngeal cancer.19‒25


The study shows that Palestinians have 15 time’s higher incidence for laryngeal carcinoma than Lebanese, most probably due to difference in habits and some race difference. Palestinians have a higher incidence for laryngeal carcinoma than Lebanese. Race is a considerable risk factor and there is a strong link between race and laryngeal carcinoma.



Conflicts of interest

Author declares there are no conflicts of interest.




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