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Journal of
eISSN: 2376-0060

Lung, Pulmonary & Respiratory Research

Editorial Volume 2 Issue 1

Infections associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Attapon Cheepsattayakorn,1,2 Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn3

110th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai University, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
210th Office of Disease Prevention and Control, Chiang Mai University, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Correspondence: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, 10th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease center, 143 Sridornchai Road Changklan Muang Chiang Mai 50100 Thailand, Tel 66 53 140767, Fax 66 53 140773

Received: January 16, 2015 | Published: January 17, 2015

Citation: Cheepsattayakorn A, Cheepsattayakorn R. Infections associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Lung Pulm Respir Res. 2015;2(1):8. DOI: 10.15406/jlprr.2015.02.00028

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infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association


In the past three decades, new molecular, cellular, and immunological techniques used to study the pathogen-host interaction have been applied in researches of the role of the pathogenic organisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and contributes to considerably new evidences that infection is the major cause and pathogenesis of COPD exacerbations. Not all acquisitions of pathogenically bacterial or viral organisms are followed by COPD exacerbation, but 50% of exacerbations are caused by bacterial infections. History of pulmonary tuberculosis and chronic respiratory symptoms are the main determinants of COPD patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Fungi, particularly Pneumocystis jiroveci has undefined role, but a recent case report concluded that there was possible association between COPD and mild immunosuppressive status for the development of Pneumocystosis pneumonia in COPD patients without HIV infection. Haemophilus influenza takes the major role in both exacerbated and stable COPD, whereas rhinovirus takes the major role in exacerbated COPD. Helicobacter pylori, a slow-growing, microaerophilic, gram-negative bacterium, particularly of the high virulent cytotoxic-associated gene-A (CagA) positive strains which colonizes gastric mucosa and elicits both immune and inflammatory lifelong responses, with release of various host-dependent and bacterial cytotoxic mediators, has been identified in several extragastroduodenal diseases. Some previous reports demonstrated that the risk of chronic bronchitis may be increased in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. A recent study revealed that 57.5% of COPD patients had Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity, whereas only 37.5% of the controls had. Pseudomonas aeroginosa accounts for 5-10% of exacerbated COPD patients with advanced stage, demonstrated in a recent study.


In conclusion, the most important bacterial causes of COPD exacerbations are non type able Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Chlamydia pneumonia that account for 10-30% of the COPD exacerbations.



Conflict of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

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©2015 Cheepsattayakorn, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.