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Plants & Agriculture Research

Research Article Volume 9 Issue 1

Description of a new predatory mite species of the genus pseudostigmaeus (pseudo stigmaeus solanumus) acari: prostigmata: stigmaeide from Pakistan

Bilal Saeed Khan,3 Muhammad Afzal,2 Muhammad Hamid Bashir,3 Muhammad Farooq,1 Abdul Ghaffar1

1Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, (AARI), Pakistan
2Professor and Dean, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
3Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Pakistan

Correspondence: Bilal Saeed Khan, Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Received: June 02, 2018 | Published: February 4, 2019

Citation: Khan BS, Afzal M, Bashir MH, et al. Description of a new predatory mite species of the genus pseudostigmaeus (pseudo stigmaeus solanumus) acari: prostigmata: stigmaeide from Pakistan. Adv Plants Agric Res. 2019;9(1):202-204. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2019.09.00436

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Mites are tiny arthropod, biologically most varied and universally adopted in all types of habitats. Mites of family Stigmaeidae are well-known predators of phytophagous mites, lepidopteran eggs, and small soft-bodied insects. An arbitrary study was planned to discover mite fauna of the family Stigmaeidae from Punjab province (Pakistan). The said species (Pseudostigmaeussolanumus) is considered here as new which was collected from the city Muzafarghar, Punjab from (Solanummelongena). Twelve (12) paratypes females were collected from the same locality and three (3) from bitter gourd crop from the city of Jhang, Punjab. The specimen (collected mites) was mounted on glass slides with aid of solution of Hoyer’s. The sketches of mite body were organized with the help of optical microscopic grids. The report and drawing of idiosomal parts, host ranges and evaluating comments are also agreed in this document.

Keywords: acari, Pseudostigmaeus, new species, predatory mite


The family Stigmaeidae was established by Oudemans.1 The mites of this family are main predators within Raphignathoidea, include a diversity of almost 577 species that assembled into 34 valid genera (July 31, 2016). The Stigmaeidae among most studied families in Acarology and the rate of described species has increased by almost 45 percent in last twenty years. More than three quarters of species (almost 50 %) are distributed in the Palaearctic and Indo-Malaya region. Wood2 created the genus Pseudostigmaeus based on type as Pseudostigmaeusstriatus and Pseudostigmaeuscollyerae simultaneously. Meyer3 designated P. capensis from the areas of South Africa and redefined the genus with a novel judgment. But later, Meyer species detached and chosen as the genotype of a new genus parastigmaeus.4 Momen5 described a species from trees of apple from Ireland and one new species designated as P. ueckermanni from China. Wood6 designated one species from Island (Campell). Later, Wood from New Zealand provided a key to species in 1971.7


Previously, the genus only included two species, P. collyerae, and P. striatus Wood. Wood,2 genus Pseudostigmaeus was described; characteristically by the incidence of 3 pair of setae on middle propodosomal plate area, central hysterosomal shield absent or very poorly seen able in few cases, presence of inter-coxal plates; 1-2 setae on second coxa. The body lenient and faintly reticulated, chelicerae are separated/ detached, Palptibia with 2 modest setae, main claw sometimes provided with accessory claw, palp-tarsus bearing 3-4 setae, 1 soledion, spine present or sometimes absent, 01 trifideupathidium. Dorsal setae 12-13 pairs. Dorsum enclosed by 1 propodo-somal shield and one pair of minor suranal platelets/ shield, sometimes absent. Eyes 1 pair on propodosoma. Typically, genital part with a single genital pore, 2-3 pairs of anogenital setae & 3 pair of paraproctal setae. The specimens of this genus often collected from aerial living plants or soil leaf litter from New Zealand, China, Ireland, South Africa, respectively. Three (3) new species have been collected by writer from Punjab, Pakistan and one (1) is described here in this document which is compared with P. jhangensis and P. capensis.

Materials and methods

The genus Pseudostigmaeus (Acari: Stigmadae) was collected from the aerial plant parts of brinjal (eggplant) (Solanummelongena L.) in the area of Muzaffargarh city by the first author. The permanent slides were prepared by using Hoyer’s medium with the help of binocular. The species identification was done with the assistance of literature and taxonomic keys. The terminology developed by Grandjeans8 with some amendments by Gonzalez,9 summer10 & Kethley11 has been used here. The measurements were made in µm.

Results and discussion

Pseudostigmaeus solanumus n.sp.

Female: Dorsum: (Figure1A-Figure 1D): Description of female dorsum (n=2). The measurement of holotype followed by two paratypes in parentheses

Figure 1A Pseudostigmaeus solanumusn. sp. Gnathosoma.

Figure 1B Pseudostigmaeus solanumus n.sp. (Dorsum).

Figure 1C Pseudostigmaeus solanumus n.sp.(Venter).

Figure 1D Pseudostigmaeus solanumus n.sp. Legs I-IV.

Body long having the length of 362 (361-364)µm (without gnathosoma), 192µm (191-93) wide. Gnathosoma length 112 (112-115), Cheliceral length 78 (77-79), stylets 37 (36-38). Padipalp 102(100-104), palptarsus slightly longer than main tibial claw, palptarsus provided with 4 setae and trifidsensillium. Solenidian and spine absent. Palpfemur provided with 2 setae, palpgenu with 1 seta and palptibia with 2 setae. Peritreme prominent 52 (52-54). Eyes 1 pair, postocular body absent (Figure 1A). Propodosomal shield incomplete in appearance provided with rounded corners. The base of seta ve on propodosomal plate present in front of eyes. The third pair seta sci shorter in length than ve; seta sci and sce approaching outside the propodosomal plate corners. Humeral seta heabsent dorsally. The area of metapodal shield covered with dense striations; an incomplete line of metapodal shield visible just above the seta e1. All the dorsal seta shorter in length than the length of h1 and h2. The particular distances between seta vi-vi 30 (28-32), ve-ve52 (52-55), sci-sci107 (105-108), c1-c1 60 (60-63), e1-e1 42 (41-43), e1-f1 30 (28-30), d1-d1 98 (96-99), c1-d1 87 (87-90), d1-e1 57 (55-57), d2-d2 150 (147-151), e2-e2 130 (130-134),f1-f1 75 (74-75). Dorsal setae length as vi 15 (15-16), ve 25 (24-26), sci 20 (18-20), sce 20 (20-21), c1 18 (17-19), d1 18 (18-19), e1 20 (20-22), d2 15 (15-16), e2 13 (13-15), f1 17 (17-19), h2 27 (26-28) and h1 32 (32-33).

Venter: Ventrally gnathosoma provided 2 pair of sub capitular setae i.e or 1, or 2. three pair of ventral idiosomal setae (1a, 3a, 4a), 1st pair greatly longer than others. Area between coxae III and coxae IV covered with striations. Humeral setaheseen able. Smooth 2 pairs of anogenital setae ag1, ag2, genital setae g11 pair, and three pair of setae ps3, ps2 and ps1 slightly barbed (Figure 1C).

Legs: The arrangement and numbers of setae legs I=IV i.e., Chaetotaxy includes solinidion on tarsus (Figure 1D): coxae 2-01-2-2; trochanters 01-01-01-2; femora 04-04-2-2; genua03-1-0-0; tibiae 04-5-4-4; tarsi 10-7-7-6.

Etymology: The new species name is agreed according to the crop from where it was collected.

Adult Male: Yet unknown

Type: The female (Holotype) collected from Muzafarghar (South Punjab) by Bilal Saeed Khan on Brinjal crop (Solanummelongena). 12 para type females collected from same locality and 3 paratypes collected from Jhang city on Bitter gourd. All collected individuals were placed in laboratory of Acarology, Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

Key to genus Pseudostigmaeus form Punjab, Pakistan (females)

  1. Tridentate spine absent on tarsalpeg; palptibia with 1 seta; palp tarsalpeg equal with main claw; dotted striations on propodosomal shield; 11-pairs dorsal setae…angensis (n.sp)
  2. Tridentate spine present; palptibia with more than 1 seta; palp tarsalpeg longer than main claw; propodosomal shield without dotted striations; 12-13 pairs dorsal setae…….. 2
  3. Propodosomal shield incompletely visible; the base of metapodal shield visible; ventral idiosoma partially striated; paraproctal setae serrate/ barbed.…… solanumus (n.sp)
  4. Propodosomal shield completely visible; the base of metapodal shield not visible; ventral idiosoma completely striated; paraproctal setae not serrate……3
  5. Dorsal setae smooth; humeral seta ventrally present; anogenital plate not rounded in shape; smooth paragenital setae; barbed anogenital setae; 3 setae on tibia-I..……sorghumus (n.sp)
  6. Dorsal setae not smooth; humeral seta ventrally absent; anogenital plate rounded shape; paragenital setae not smooth; anogenital setae not barbed; more than 3 setae on tibia-I……4
  7. Palpgenu with 2 setae; postocular body absent; seta f1 present; 4 pairs of anogenital setae; ventral idiosoma provided with 5 setae…… ueckermani (Ueckermann)
  8. Palpgenu without setae; postocular body present; seta f1 absent; 3 pairs of anogenital setae; ventral idiosoma provided with 6 setae ………..capensis (Meyer).

Note: (Male and immatures were not in collection and yet unknown.)

Remarks: 1

This new species is closely resembled with P. jhangensis 2014 but can be differentiated due to following morphological points:

  1. Peritremal length 52mm in this n.sp. while 75mm in Pseudostigmaeusjhangensis.
  2. Propodosomal shield incompletely visible while completely visible in Pseudostigmaeusjhangensis.
  3. Humeral seta ventrally visible while absent in Pseudostigmaeusjhangensis.
  4. Sci-sci 107mm while 132mm in Pseudostigmaeusjhangensis.
  5. Venter of gnathosoma provided with 2 pairs of setae while 3 pairs in Pseudostigmaeusjhangensis.
  6. 4 pairs of setae (g1, ps1-ps3) within genital chamber in this n.sp. provided ps2 and ps1 barbed while 3 pairs in Pseudostigmaeusjhangensis.
  7. Chaetotaxy of leg I-IV differ remarkably in both species.
  8. Ventral idiosomal setae 3 in this new species, while 4 in Pseudostigmaeusjhangensis.

Remarks: 2

This new species also having some similar characters with P. ueckermani, but can be separated due to following characters:

  1. The number of setae remarkably different on leg I-IV.
  2. Dorsal setae vary in length and distances/ ratio in both of specie.



Conflicts of interest

The authors declared there is no conflict of interest.


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  3. Meyer MKP, Ryke PAJ. Some stigmaeid mites from South Africa (Acari: Trombidiformes). Acarologia. 1969;11(2):207‒217.
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  11. Kethley J. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Soil Biology Guide. In: Dindal DL, editor. USA: John Wiley & Sons; 1990. 1376 p.
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