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Material Science & Engineering International Journal

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 2

Properties of particleboard produced from discard sawdust and cassava waste blends

Olusegun D Samuel,1 Ajayi R Oyelayo,2 Peter A Oghenekowho,1 Idubor I Fabian,3 Akpeji BH,4 Ikuobase Emovon1

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Nigeria
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osun State University, Nigeria
3Department of Marine Engineering, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Nigeria
4Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Nigeria

Correspondence: Olusegun D Samuel, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Delta State P.M.B 1221, Nigeria

Received: March 30, 2021 | Published: April 8, 2021

Citation: Samuel OD, Oyelayo AR, Oghenekowho PA, et al. Properties of particleboard produced from discard sawdust and cassava waste blends. Material Sci & Eng. 2021;5(2):44-47. DOI: 10.15406/mseij.2021.05.00155

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Abstract

The felling of wood has resulted in environmental problems such as deforestation and climatic change. One way of solving this problem of high demand is by sourcing alternative raw materials for the production of particleboards. In the prevailing literature, there is a lack of methodical studies including variation water adsorption of particleboards developed from sawdust and cassava waste (starch) in the tropics and exposure period, and trends of compaction and bulk density of the particleboard and cement fraction. In this research, for (i) enhancing the particleboard produced from sawdust waste and cassava starch, (ii) increasing use of cement fraction was employed, (1) key properties particleboard produced were determined according to ASTM standards, and (2) finally, regression models as a function of cement content were postulated for the water adsorption. The water-absorbent of the particleboard increased with the increase in the exposure period and cement content. Water adsorption (Wa) is correlated with cement fraction through the least square regression method. The quadratic equation is appropriate for Wa at the different exposure periods. The R2 values range from 0.9984 to 0.9996, expressing these equations marginally reflect the discrepancy of Wa. The higher changes in the compressive strength and bulk density of the particleboards at the higher cement blend compared to those lower and no cement blends, implying better compaction between the mixture of sawdust-starch. The results of the study can help physical property collection for the particleboard industry and guide for improving the properties of particleboards in the tropics.

Keywords: natural adhesive, cement-bonded particleboard, water absorption, compressive strength, sawdust

Introduction

The increase in the demand for wood and wood-based products is the main cause of deforestation and this has serious environmental effects, such as loss of biodiversity and climate change, on our society. Particleboard, which is the chief of all wood-based composites consumes 57% of all wood panels and its use is increasing 2-5% annually.1 The problem of the wood industry is that the waste product poses land and air pollution as they are allowed to lie waste until they decompose. An increase in the demand for wood and wood-based products is the main cause of deforestation and this has serious environmental effects, such as loss of biodiversity and climate change, on our society. One way of solving this problem of high demand is by sourcing alternative raw materials for the production of particleboards. Much has been done in this regard to reduce the pressure on the forest by replacing wood, either partially or completely, with sycamore leaves,2 agricultural waste,3 maize stalk,4 waste paper,5 Kenaf,6,7 wheat straw,7,8 rice straw,9 corn pith,8 paper sludge,10 waste tire rubber,11 cotton carpel chips,12 almond shell,13 oil palm trunk biomass waste14,15 and palm kernel shell16 in the manufacture of particleboards of different densities. The combined issue of scarcity of raw material and pollution can be tackled by recycling and reusing wood products and wastes. Several wastes have been explored for the production of particleboards. For example, Sawdust16,17 and wood particle char18 with the combinations of other materials have been successfully exploited to make particleboards.

Methods in the production of the particleboards vary. Marashdeh et al7 & Xu et al.19 hinted that particleboards can be developed without a binder. However, other researchers20,21 highlighted the feasibility of producing novel particles with either binders or adhesives. As expected, Moubarik, et al.22 stated that particleboard formulated with binder/adhesives have enhanced mechanical and thermophysical properties compared to that of the board without adhesives/binders. A major drawback to the use of adhesive is the emission of harmful substances from synthetic adhesive-based particleboards that may result in adverse environmental and health issues.23 Refs,23, 24 posited that owing to the eco-friendliness nature of natural binder adhesive, they are is capable of curtailing the harmful emissions. Cement-bonded particleboards are becoming common due to improved properties such as modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, and water absorption.3,4,25 The compatibility of cement and wood/wood particles can be improved either by pre-treating the wood with hot water26 or CO2 curing.27 The effect of particle size and geometry on the properties of particleboard has been investigated by some researchers. Miyamoto et al.28 reported that linear expansion and internal bond strength of particleboards increased with decreasing particle size while thickness swelling decreased. Also, effects of particle size on the mechanical properties of particleboard have been reported. For instance, Marashdeh et al.29 stated that the particle size influences the internal bond strength and dimensional stability of the properties of particleboard while Yang et al.9 concluded that the particle size does not influence the properties of particleboard. Sotannde et al.24 stressed that the heterogeneous particle sizes tend to enhance bending strength properties. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is the absence of preliminary investigation on the effect of blending of additives on the properties of particleboards produced from cement and sawdust and starch extracted from cassava and explored as a natural adhesive. The study will go a long way in providing a platform to adequately convert and prevent environmental nuisance which might emanate from the dropping of sawdust in the environment.

Methodology

Materials

The materials used for this study are ordinary Portland cement, sawdust from a local wood sawmill and starch extracted from a cassava fermentation process.

Method

The sawdust was sieved to obtain an average particle size of 710 µm, washed with hot water of about 80 °C for one hour, and then rinsed in cold water. A known quantity of hot water was then added to the weighed amount of starch to make a gel. The starch gel was then added to the weighed amount of sawdust and mixed thoroughly. The cement of varying percent (0-10%) was added to a constant mass (25 g) of the sawdust mixture. After stirring to obtain a homogenous mix, it was then pressed with a uniform force of 30 kN and allowed to dry in the air for three months for proper curing.

Experimental investigations

Water absorption test

The test is carried out to find out the amount of water that will be absorbed by the manufactured particleboard within a stipulated period of time. Ten specimens of approximately equal weights were used. Time of immersion, weight before and after immersion was recorded. This procedure was repeated for each mix for specimens with 0%, 2%, 5%, 8% and 10% cement. The percentage of water absorbed was computed with the aid of equation (1)

W A =  ( W 2   W 1 ) W 2  x 100 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcfaieaaaaaa aaa8qacaWGxbWdamaaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaamyqaaqcfa4daeqaa8qa cqGH9aqpcaGGGcWaaSaaa8aabaWdbmaabmaapaqaa8qacaWGxbWdam aaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaqcfa4daeqaa8qacqGHsislcaGGGcGa am4va8aadaWgaaqaaKqzadWdbiaaigdaaKqba+aabeaaa8qacaGLOa Gaayzkaaaapaqaa8qacaWGxbWdamaaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaqc fa4daeqaaaaapeGaaiiOaiaadIhacaGGGcGaaGymaiaaicdacaaIWa aaaa@511E@     (1)

where W1, W2 are the mass of specimen before immersion (g), the mass of specimen after immersion (g) and WA is the percentage of water absorbed (g)

Compression test

The test was done to determine the crushing or maximum compressive strength of the produced particleboard. Three samples were used for each mix and the average computed. The average area of the prepared surfaces was determined by using a Vernier caliper to measure the lengths and breadths. Each of the specimens was then fixed on the horizontal compression apparatus already mounted on the Tensometer testing machine and the maximum crushing load was recorded. The maximum compressive strengths of the particleboards were calculated using equation (2):

C=  W A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcfaieaaaaaa aaa8qacaWGdbGaeyypa0JaaiiOamaalaaapaqaa8qacaWGxbaapaqa a8qacaWGbbaaaaaa@3B87@     (2)

where W and A are maximum compressive load (N), average area (length x breadth) of the bearing faces in (mm2) while C is the maximum compressive strength of particleboard (N/mm2)

Thickness

Vernier caliper was used to measure the thickness of the particleboard at both edges and at the middle. The average reading was found to be the same for the whole board irrespective of the mix.

Density measurement

The dry masses of the samples were measured using an electronic weighing machine of sensitivity of the order of 0.01g. The volume of the weighed specimen was obtained by measuring its length, breadth, and thickness using a Vernier caliper. The average density for two specimens for each mix was then calculated the density was then calculated by using equation (3)

ρ=  M V MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcfaieaaaaaa aaa8qacqaHbpGCcqGH9aqpcaGGGcWaaSaaa8aabaWdbiaad2eaa8aa baWdbiaadAfaaaaaaa@3C89@      (3)

Results and discussion

Water absorption

Water absorbent (Wa) of particleboards developed from varying cement content and sawdust (0-10 %C) is presented in Figure 1 where points and lines represent the measured data at the various exposure periods (60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, and 480 s) and the values computed from the curve fit equation. The water-absorbent of the particleboard increased with the increase in the exposure period and cement content. The rate of absorption of water was rapid at lower times (between 60-300 seconds) of immersion and it was observed that the rate decreased between 300-480 seconds. The decrease in the rate of water absorption was a result of water saturation. Table 1 summarizes the water-absorbent correlations reliant on the cement content, and their regression coefficients (R2). The Wa of particleboards at the different exposure periods are detected to be appropriately tailored by the quadratic equations as portrayed in Figure 1 & Table 1. The R2 values are estimated between 0.9984 and 0.9996 for the various exposure durations, as presented in Table 1. A comparable finding was also found in the prevailing literature.30

Figure 1 Variations in water absorptions of particleboard versus period of exposure.

Cement content

Regression models

R2 

0

  W a =1 X  10 6 T i +0.001 T i     +0.6118 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcfaieaaaaaa aaa8qacaGGGcGaam4va8aadaWgaaqaaKqzadWdbiaadggaaKqba+aa beaapeGaeyypa0JaeyOeI0IaaGymaiaacckacaWGybGaaiiOaiaaig dacaaIWaWdamaaCaaabeqaaKqzadWdbiabgkHiTiaaiAdaaaqcfaOa amivaSWdamaaBaaajuaGbaqcLbmapeGaamyAaaqcfa4daeqaa8qacq GHRaWkcaaIWaGaaiOlaiaaicdacaaIWaGaaGymaiaadsfapaWaaSba aeaajugWa8qacaWGPbGaaiiOaiaacckacaGGGcGaaiiOaaqcfa4dae qaa8qacqGHRaWkcaaIWaGaaiOlaiaaiAdacaaIXaGaaGymaiaaiIda aaa@5D47@  

0.9988

2

  W a =1 X  10 6 T i +0.001 T i     +0.6049 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcfaieaaaaaa aaa8qacaGGGcGaam4va8aadaWgaaqaaKqzadWdbiaadggaaKqba+aa beaapeGaeyypa0JaeyOeI0IaaGymaiaacckacaWGybGaaiiOaiaaig dacaaIWaWdamaaCaaabeqaaKqzadWdbiabgkHiTiaaiAdaaaqcfaOa amivaSWdamaaBaaajuaGbaqcLbmapeGaamyAaaqcfa4daeqaa8qacq GHRaWkcaaIWaGaaiOlaiaaicdacaaIWaGaaGymaiaadsfapaWaaSba aeaajugWa8qacaWGPbGaaiiOaiaacckacaGGGcGaaiiOaaqcfa4dae qaa8qacqGHRaWkcaaIWaGaaiOlaiaaiAdacaaIWaGaaGinaiaaiMda aaa@5D4A@  

0.9970

5

W a =2 X  10 6 T i +0.0013 T i     +0.5428 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcfaieaaaaaa aaa8qacaWGxbWdamaaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaamyyaaqcfa4daeqaa8qa cqGH9aqpcqGHsislcaaIYaGaaiiOaiaadIfacaGGGcGaaGymaiaaic dapaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaeyOeI0IaaGOnaaaajuaGcaWGubWd amaaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaamyAaaqcfa4daeqaa8qacqGHRaWkcaaIWa GaaiOlaiaaicdacaaIWaGaaGymaiaaiodacaWGubWdamaaBaaabaqc LbmapeGaamyAaiaacckacaGGGcGaaiiOaiaacckaaKqba+aabeaape Gaey4kaSIaaGimaiaac6cacaaI1aGaaGinaiaaikdacaaI4aaaaa@5C4B@  

0.9996

8

W a =2X 10 6 T i +0.0015 T i +0.4706 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcfaieaaaaaa aaa8qacaWGxbWdamaaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaamyyaaqcfa4daeqaa8qa cqGH9aqpcqGHsislcaaIYaGaamiwaiaaigdacaaIWaWdamaaCaaabe qaaKqzadWdbiabgkHiTiaaiAdaaaqcfaOaamiva8aadaWgaaqaaKqz adWdbiaadMgaaKqba+aabeaapeGaey4kaSIaaGimaiaac6cacaaIWa GaaGimaiaaigdacaaI1aGaamivaSWdamaaBaaajuaGbaqcLbmapeGa amyAaaqcfa4daeqaa8qacqGHRaWkcaaIWaGaaiOlaiaaisdacaaI3a GaaGimaiaaiAdaaaa@560C@  

0.9984

10

W a =2X 10 6 T i +0.0016 T i +0.453 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcfaieaaaaaa aaa8qacaWGxbWdamaaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaamyyaaqcfa4daeqaa8qa cqGH9aqpcqGHsislcaaIYaGaamiwaiaaigdacaaIWaWdamaaCaaabe qaaKqzadWdbiabgkHiTiaaiAdaaaqcfaOaamiva8aadaWgaaqaaKqz adWdbiaadMgaaKqba+aabeaapeGaey4kaSIaaGimaiaac6cacaaIWa GaaGimaiaaigdacaaI2aGaamiva8aadaWgaaqaaKqzadWdbiaadMga aKqba+aabeaapeGaey4kaSIaaGimaiaac6cacaaI0aGaaGynaiaaio daaaa@54B5@  

0.9981

Table 1 Regression models for water adsorption of particleboard
Wa = Water adsorbent (%); Ti= exposure period (sec)

Compression test result

Figure 2 depicts the variation of compressive strength of the particleboard and cement content. As observed, there was a uniform increase in the compressive strength of the particleboard as the percentage content of the cement increase.

Figure 2 Variations in compressive strength of particleboard and cement content.

Bulk density

Figure 3 portrays the variation of bulk density of the particleboard and cement content. As detected, there was an increase in the bulk density of the particleboard as the percentage content of the cement increase.

Figure 3 Variations in bulk density of particleboard and cement content.

Conclusion

In this research, for (i) enhancing the properties of particleboard produced from sawdust waste and cassava starch, (ii) increasing use of cement fraction was employed, (1) key properties particleboard produced were determined according to ASTM standards, and finally regression models as a function of cement content were postulated for the water adsorption and in the scope of this study, physical (density, water absorption, and thickness swelling) and mechanical (modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bond strength) investigations on the particleboards formulated will be investigated. The following conclusions can be established from this study:

  1. The water-absorbent of the particleboard increased with the increase in the exposure period and cement content.
  2. Water adsorption (Wa) is correlated with cement fraction through the least square regression method.
  3. The quadratic equation is appropriate for Wa at the different exposure periods. The R2 values range from 0.9984 to 0.9996, expressing these equations marginally reflect the discrepancy of Wa.
  4. The higher changes in the compressive strength and bulk density of the particleboards at the higher cement blend compared to those lower and no cement blends, implying better compaction between the mixture of sawdust-starch.

Acknowledgments

None.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

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