Journal of eISSN: 2373-4310 JNHFE

Nutritional Health & Food Engineering
Public Policy
Special Issue - 2015
Timing of Eating and Exercise: Creating a Robust Public Science
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Zanjan, Iran
Received: October 10, 2015 | Published: October 13, 2015
*Corresponding author: Akbar Nikkhah, Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zanjan, Foremost Principal Highly Distinguished Elite-Generating Scientist, National Elite Foundation, Iran, Email:
Citation: Nikkhah A (2015) Timing of Eating and Exercise: Creating a Robust Public Science. J Nutr Health Food Eng 2(5): 00078. DOI: 10.15406/jnhfe.2015.02.00078


This article introduces timing of intake and exercise as an innovative public science to improve life quality in the postmodern era. Food intake and exercise at certain times of the circadian phase when the body is internally prepared to optimally bioprocess nutrients can improve metabolism and overall health. Evening and night are usually not the optimal times to consume much energy since human endocrinology has not evolved to optimally assimilate energy overnight. Evening physical activity could improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduce obesity and diabetes risks. More research is required to deepen the current insights and perspectives.

Keywords: Timing; Food intake; Exercise; Metabolism; Health

Innovation and Philosophy

Human brain efficiency depends highly on lifestyle properties [1]. Timing of food intake has been an innovative subject for recent research and practice [2-6]. Large evening meals are not recommended for those seeking optimal metabolism and health in the new times [7]. From an evolutionary perspective, human endocrinology has evolved to assimilate and metabolize glucose and other energy precursors preferably in morning and day-time when the body is prepared to work actively and metabolize intensely. However, evening is the time when the body prepares to rest and relax towards overnight sleep, thus being a rather inactive metabolic phase [8,9]. As such, glucose tolerance and insulin efficiency decrease as evening and night begin [10]. This evolutionary principle leads to formulating a public nutritional program that is based on frequent small energizing meals during morning and day and very few even smaller fruity low-energy meals during evening and night [11,12].

Scheduling exercise for evening times has the capacity to improve cellular energetic and human endocrinology. This helps the body to at least in part maintain its high efficiency in insulin function. But, such an evening exercise must not be followed by large high-starch high-fat food meals that could harm the body even more than when no evening exercise is scheduled [13-15].

The evening exercise is required to have an adequately intense nature to cause prolonged sweating and increased heart rate. This resembles to when human used to live in nature [15]. In addition, evening exercise should preferably be conducted at least 3-4 hours before the time going to sleep in order to not interfere with normal resting behaviour. Thus, evening exercise should be exercised truly in evening and not later overnight. Such a timely and early evening physical activity would help the body better prepare for a deep sleep and has the potential to reduce sleep disorders and abnormalities. The gut health and body weight management could also be optimized better under such eating-exercise programs [16,17].


This perspective public health article innovatively introduced the timing of circadian eating and exercise as a healthy science to be practiced by all for optimal metabolism and health. This program is amongst today’s necessities for the modern man towards healthier postmodern lifestyles. While high-energy and appetizing foods intake must be reduced in evening and overnight, adequate evening exercise could improve human endocrinology and metabolic health. These can certainly contribute to reducing obesity and diabetes risks.


Thanks to the Ministry of Science Research and Technology and National Elite Foundation for supporting the author’s global programs and initiatives of optimizing science edification in the new millennium.


  1. Nikkhah A (2015) Pragmatic Science Edification: The Evolving Biodiverse Brain of Society. J Biodivers Biopros Dev 2: e109.
  2. Nikkhah A (2015) Effective Weight Management in Periparturient Women through Optimizing Eating Timing: A Novel Global Approach. Adv Weight Manag Obesity Control 2(3): 00018.
  3. Nikkhah A (2015) Circadian Timing of Hunger to Avert Obesity: An Environmental Evolutionary Science. J J Environ Sci 1(1): 005.
  4. Nikkhah A (2015) Discovering the Right Time to Take Food to Smash Diabetes. J Diabetes Res Ther 1. 1.
  5. Nikkhah A (2015) Safety against Diabetes via Optimizing Circadian Intake Patterns: Science Evolution Cropped. Adv Crop Sci Technol S1: e001.
  6. Nikkhah A (2015) Establishing Regular Patterns of Cellular Mechanics to Minimize Oncogenesis: Animal Sciences Inspire. Aust J Vet Sci Anim Husb 2(2): 1010.
  7. Nikkhah A (2015) Circadian Fitting of Exercise and Eating Patterns: The Secret of Healthy Life. J Bioprocess Biotech 5: e129.
  8. Nikkhah A (2015) Timing of Physical Training to Optimize Metabolism: Founding a Workable Public Health Program . J J Food Nutr In Press.
  9. Nikkhah A (2015) Towards a Global Anti-Diabetes Exercise Program. J Bioprocess Biotechniq 5: e135.
  10. Nikkhah A (2015) Standardizing Appetite through Timing of Food Intake to Minimize Metabolic Disorders: A Veterinary Revelation. J Veterinar Sci Technol 6: e116.
  11. Nikkhah A (2015) Lifestyle Bioengineering via Scheduled Intake: Bridging Animal Agriculture to Human Medicine. Aust J Biotechnol Bioeng 2(3): 1045.
  12. Nikkhah A (2015) Demolishing Obesity via a Circadian Cutting-Edge Public Science. J J Obesity 1(1): 008.
  13. Nikkhah A (2015) Circadian Timing and Regularity of Physical Activity: A Novel Bioprocess to Prevent Devastating Modern Diseases.  J Bioprocess Biotechniq 5: e131.
  14. Nikkhah A (2015) Running as a Postmodern Probiotic to Optimize Gut Physiology and Health. J Prob Health 3: 1.
  15. Nikkhah A (2015) Nature as an Ideal Rhythm Model for Optimal Cardiovascular physiology and Health. Int J Diabetol Vasc Dis Res 3(2e): 1-2.
  16. Nikkhah A (2015) Living Gut Health Improvement through Time-Managing Nutrient Assimilation: An Evolutionary Probiotic. J Prob Health 3: 1.
  17. Nikkhah A (2015) Secure Weight Management via Fitting Circadian Patterns of Physical Activity, Resting and Eating. Adv Weigh Manag Obes Cont 2(4): 23.
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