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Journal of
eISSN: 2373-437X

Microbiology & Experimentation

Mini Review Volume 9 Issue 2

Marine fungi from different habitats recorded from 2001 to date in Mexico

Amelia Portillo-Lopez, Sophia Gonzalez-Martinez

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexico

Correspondence: Amelia Portillo Lopez, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Km 103 carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B.C. Mexico, CP 22860, Tel +52 646 1744560

Received: March 05, 2021 | Published: March 18, 2021

Citation: Portillo-Lopez A, Gonzalez-Martinez S. Marine fungi from different habitats recorded from 2001 to date in Mexico. J Microbiol Exp. 2021;9(2):34-37. DOI: 10.15406/jmen.2021.09.00320

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Abstract

Marine fungi are essential as recyclers of organic matter in the ocean, as well their secondary metabolites are now studied as potential drugs for different diseases. Despite Mexico having an extensive coastline, few resources have been allocated to the research of this group. Through a thorough review of scientific literature between 2001 and February 2021, a systematic listing of marine fungi on Mexico's marine waters was constructed. In this work, two orders, forty-nine genera, and thirteen species are recorded, of which 50 are new records. The most frequent phylum was Ascomycota (92%; 50 genera), followed Chytridiomycota (4%; 2 genera) and Basidiomycota (4%; 2 genera). Most of them have been reported in the Gulf of Mexico, followed by the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of California and, the Caribbean. A new halophile species isolated from deep sediment in the Gulf of California (Aspergillus loretoensis) is also reported.

Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Gulf of México, Pacific Ocean, Gulf of California

Introduction

Marine fungi in México have been studied since 1968.1 The studied fungi were isolated from coastal water and foam, sand beach, detritus, mangrove wood, and rhizosphere.2-13 Gonzalez et al.,3 reported the last checklist of marine fungi in México, where it contained sixty-one ascomycetes and one basidiomycete, all of them isolated by culture. Since then, only ten papers on marine fungi in México have been published. However, knowledge of marine fungi's biodiversity is biased because it is difficult to cultivate and subsequently identify them. It is estimated that only 5% have been isolated with traditional methods, as they cannot sporulate and grow.14 However, new studies using sequences derived from the metagenomic analysis have increased the richness of fungi in the marine environment.15

México's coastline of 11,122 km, of which 7,828 km belong to the Pacific Ocean and 3,294 km to the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.16 It also has the Gulf of California long by 48-241 Km wide; despite the marine waters of México is home to a great diversity of species of which some are native,17 very few species and resources have been used to research marine fungi species.11  Fungi are essential in marine ecosystems because they participate in recycling organic matter.14 Furthermore, industrial and pharmaceutical compounds have been discovered from marine fungi.18 Their ecological and biotechnological benefits make studying this kingdom important. Considering the importance of the marine fungi, We summarized here forty-nine genera and thirteen species reported for the first time in México and a new halophile species.13 Most of them were isolated from different marine habitats, and some genus identified by DNA sequences using molecular markers (18S rRNA gene).7

Materials and methods

An extensive bibliographic search was carried out in the main databases such as PUBMED (NCBI), ScienceDirect, DOAJ, Google scholar, and SCIELO (Table 1).

Coast

México State

Pacific Ocean & Gulf of Mexico

NAY, CHP, TAM7

Gulf of México

TAM, VER, CAM, YUC4

Gulf of México

TAB5

Caribbean

QROO (Cozumel island)6

Gulf of California

BCS8

Gulf of México

VER9

Gulf of California

BCS10

Gulf of México11

Gulf of California

BCS13

Gulf of México

BC12

Table 1 Studies from marine fungi in México

Results and discussion

From 2001 to date were recorded fifty marine fungi. Being Ascomycota the most representative (92%), with thirteen species and a new halophile species (Aspergillus loretoensis) isolated from 275 m deep marine sediment at Loreto Bay of Baja California Sur (Table 2; Figure 1, no.2).  New records in México were Chytriomyces sp. and Rhyzophydium sp. of the phylum Chytridiomycota. Those were registered in the Pacific ocean.7 Members of this phylum are zoosporic fungi that use a monocentric thallus as anucleate filamentous rhizoids to anchor the substrate absorb their nutrients. They are saprophytes, pathogens and can degrade chitin, cellulose, and keratin.20 By another hand, the genus Nia sp (Basidiomycota) was reported previously in foam from the Caribbean.21 However, the new register was found in the sand beach of the Pacific ocean12 (Figure 1, no.1). It is important to say that this species is a wood-rotting fungus and cosmopolite in its distribution. The other Basidyomycota is Peniophora sp. some species have been reported as mangrove endophytic and are being studied as laccase enzyme producers.22  The Ascomycota members were found in different substrates or water. From sand beach were isolated twenty-two genus and seven species (Ascosacculutus heteroguttulatus, Ceriosporopsis capillacea, Gymnoascus hyalinosporus, Halenospora varia, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Neocosmopora solani, Parengyodontium album), mangle rhizosphere sixteen genera. Nine genus and two species (Penicillium brevicompactum and A. loretoensis) were found from sediment of the deep ocean. Seven genera were registered from the ocean water (Table 2).  The principal studies of marine fungi have been done in the Gulf of México. Scarce studies are in the Caribbean (one study in the sand beach at Cozumel island6), the Pacific Ocean (one study in sand beach12), and the Gulf of California (one sand survey from deep ocean8). More efforts must be made in those areas since they have a particular environment where it can be found, corals reefs, hydrothermal chimneys (at the Gulf of California), kelp forests, mangroves, among others.17,23 It is essential to say that the Pacific ocean has template waters, and the Gulf of California has extreme conditions since it is a semi-close area (large evaporation basin) and is next to desert territories.17 These changes could explain why other genera are not found in the Gulf of México as Exophiala sp., Lasiosphaeriaceae sp., Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Microascaceae sp., Neocosmopora solani, Parengyodontium album, Arthrographis kalrae, Aspergillus terreus, Scopulariopsis sp., Aspergillus loretoensis and the order Pleosporales. Although some genera are here reported as marine, there are also found in terrestrial substrates. Among them are Geotrichum sp., Blastomyces sp. (dermatitis), Sepedonium sp. (plant pathogen), Phialocephala sp. (forest ecosystem), Arthrographis kalrae (nail mycosis), Parengyodontium album (colonize mineral building materials), and Chysophorte sp. (Eucalyptus sp. canker).24-29

Ascomycota

Substrate found

Ocean

Locality

Culture

Orden Microascales

sand from the deep ocean

GC

BCS

Culturable8

Orden Pleosporales

sand beach, sand from the deep ocean

P, GC

BC, BCS

Culturable12

Acremonium sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Alternaria sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Arthrographis kalrae

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Ascosacculutus heteroguttulatus

sand beach

GM

TAB

Culturable5

Aspergillus spp.

rhizosphere sediment, ocean water, sand
beach, sand from the deep ocean

GM, P, GC

VER, TAM, CHP, GRO, BCS               

culturable & non7,9,10

Aspergillus loretonensis (new sp)

sand from the deep ocean

GC

BCS

Culturable8

Aspergillus terreus

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Aureobasidium sp.

sand from the deep ocean

GM

TAM, VER, CAM, YUC

Culturable4,11

Blastomyces sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Candida sp.

ocean water

P

NAY

Non culturable7

Ceriosporopsis capillacea

sand beach

GM

TAB

Culturable5

Chaetomium sp.

sand from the deep ocean

GC

BCS

Culturable8

Chysoporthe sp.

ocean water

P

CHP

Non culturable7

Cladosporium sp.

sand from deep ocean

GM, GC

VER, TAB, TAM, CAM, YUC, BCS

Culturable8,11

Corollospora spp.

sand beach

P, GM, C       

TAB, ROO, BC

Culturable5,6,12

Epicoccum sp.

sand from the deep ocean

GC

BCS

Culturable8

Exophiala sp.

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Fusarium sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Geotrichum

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Gymnoascus
hyalinosporus

sand beach

P

GRO

Culturable10

halenospora varia

sand beach

GM

TAB

Culturable5

Haiyanga salina

sand beach

GM

TAM, VER, CAM, YUC

Culturable4

Humicola sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Lasiosphaeriaceae sp

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Leptosphaerella sp.

sand beach

GM

TAM, VER, CAM, YUC

Culturable4

Meyerozyma guilliermondii

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Microascaceae sp.

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Monacrosporium sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Mucor sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Mycosphaerella sp

sand beach

GM

TAM, VER, CAM, YUC

Culturable4

Nais inornata

sand beach

GM

TAM, VER, CAM, YUC

Culturable4

Nectria sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Neocosmopora solani

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Paecilomyces sp.

ocean water

P, GM

TAM, NAY, CHP

non culturable7

Parengyodontium album

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Penicillium sp.

sand beach, sand from deep ocean, mangrove rhizophere

P, GM

BC, TAM, VER, CAM, YUC

Culturable9,12

Penicillium brevicompactum

sand from deep ocean

GM

TAM, VER, CAM, YUC

Culturable11

Phialocephala sp.

sand from deep ocean

GM

TAM, VER, CAM, YUC

Culturable11

Phoma sp.

ocean water, sand from deep ocean

GM, GC

TAM, BCS

non culturable7,8

Phomopsis sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Phytophthora sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Remispora sp

sand beach

GM

TAB

Culturable5

Scopulariopsis sp.

sand beach, sand from deep ocean

P, GC

BC, BCS

Culturable8,12

Sepedonium sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

Talaromyces sp.

rhizosphere sediment, sand from deep ocean

GM, GC

VER, BCS

Culturable9

Trichoderma sp.

rhizosphere sediment

GM

VER

Culturable9

CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA

     

Chytriomyces sp

ocean water

P

NAY

non culturable7

Rhyzophydium sp

ocean water

GM

TAM

non culturable7

BASIDIOMYCOTA

     

Nia sp.

sand beach

P

BC

Culturable12

Peniophora sp.

sand from deep ocean

GC

BCS

Culturable8

Table 2 Marine fungi from México recorded from 2001-2021
Abbreviations: Ocean: GM, Gulf of México; P, Pacific Ocean; GC, Gulf of California; C, Caribbean. México States: BC, Baja California; BCS, Baja California Sur; CHP, NAY, Nayarit; GRO, Guerrero; CHP, Chiapas; TAM, Tamaulipas; VER, Veracruz; CAM, Campeche; TAB, Tabasco; YUC, Yucatán; ROO, Quintana Roo

Figure 1 Map of México showing the studied cost. Pacific Ocean: 1, Baja California. Gulf of California: 2, Baja California Sur. Pacific Ocean: 3, Nayarit; 4, Guerrero; 5, Chiapas. Gulf of México: 6, Tamaulipas; 7, Veracruz; 8, Campeche; 9, Tabasco; 10, Yucatán. Caribbean: 11, Quintana Roo.

Conclusion

This study of marine fungi shows limited research in México. Biotechnological companies and the government must make more efforts to study this group from particular habitats in the Caribbean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of California (corals reefs, hydrothermal chimneys, kelp forest, mangroves, marshes, coastal lagoons, among others). Microorganisms from extreme environments offer new metabolites and enzymes to be used in the pharmaceutical industries; from an economic viewpoint, this is why marine fungi are essential to study.

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Carolina Uscanga-Tejeda and Hiram Higareda to elaborate the map.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

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