AJ

Authors Journal
Research Article
Volume 2 Issue 1 - 2017
An Exploratory Study on Factors Contributing to Aggressive Behavior among Adolescents in Selected Schools, Sri Amritsar, Punjab
Ramanadeep Kaur Bajwa1*, Gurjeet Kaur2 and Sukhbir Kaur3
1Student, Sri Guru Ran Das College of Nursing, India
2Assistant Professor, Sri Guru Ran Das College of Nursing, India
3Associate Professor, Sri Guru Ran Das College of Nursing, India
Received: August 07, 2017 | Published: August 18, 2017
*Corresponding author: Ramanadeep Kaur Bajwa, Student, Sri Guru Ran Das College of Nursing, Vallah, Amritsar, India, Email:
Citation: Bajwa RK, Kaur G, Kaur S (2017) An Exploratory Study on Factors Contributing to Aggressive Behavior among Adolescents in Selected Schools, Sri Amritsar, Punjab. Author J 2(1): 00015.

Abstract

Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity. It is also referred to as teenage years or youth. Among deviant human behaviors in the society, aggression appears to be the most prevalent and perturbing. An exploratory study was conducted by enrolling 200 adolescents studying at selected schools of district Amritsar, Punjab. The adolescents enrollment was done by simple random sampling technique. The Aggression Scale by G.P Mathur and Rajkumari Bhatnager was used to assess the level of aggression score of adolescents. Self structured questionnaire was used to assess the factors contributing to aggressive behavior. The study revealed that majority of the adolescents were having average (89%) level of aggression and there was significant association between family (occupation of father and order in the family) and personal factors (substance abuse) with level of aggression.

Keywords: Adolescents; Aggressive behavior; Factors

Introduction

Adolescence can be a specifically turbulent as well as a dynamic period of one's life. It has been identified as a period in which young people develop abstract thinking abilities, become more aware of their sexuality, develop a clearer sense of psychological identity and increase their independence from parents. G. Stanly Hall denoted this period as one of "Storm and Stress" and, according to him, conflict at this developmental stage is normal and not unusual. Among deviant human behaviors in the society, aggression appears to be the most prevalent and perturbing. This is because aggressive behavior is displayed everywhere in the society. It starts from the home in the form of physical or verbal aggression between couples, siblings, or parents using it as a corrective measure towards the children. Neighbors often display aggression among themselves due to one misunderstanding or the other. Various meeting places including village meetings are not spared of the exhibition of aggression. In the society hoodlums perpetrate aggressive behavior in the form of robbery, kidnapping, rape and even murder. Sometimes churches are not even spared of verbal aggression.

Objectives of the Study

  1. To assess the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents.
  2. To identify the factors contributing to aggressive behavior among adolescents.

Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology adopted during the study. It includes research design, research approach, study setting, population, sample and sampling technique, inclusion and exclusion criteria, selection and development tools, pilot study, data collection procedure, ethical consideration and plan for data analysis. This study was done to explore the factors contributing to aggressive behavior among adolescents in selected schools, Sri Amritsar, Punjab. In order to accomplish the objectives of the study, a quantitative research approach was adopted. Exploratory Research Design was adopted in this study to assess the level of aggression and also explore factors contributing to aggressive behavior among adolescents. The study was conducted in CBSE schools of district Amritsar, Punjab namely Sri Guru Harkrishan Public School at Gopalpura, Guru Nanak Dev Global Academy at Chananke and DIPS School at Mehta. All the above mentioned schools are affiliated to C.B.S.E board upto XII. Adolescents between the age group of 14 to 18 years studying in 10th, 11th and 12th standard in selected schools of Sri Amritsar, Punjab. Research Variable was Aggressive Behavior. 200 samples were used in this study at selected Schools of Sri Amritsar, Punjab. Simple Random sampling technique (lottery method) was used to collect the samples.

Selection and Development of Tools

The main concern of the study was to explore the factors contributing to aggressive behavior among adolescents. The tool related to the assessment of level of aggression and self structured questionnaire was selected and finalized after extensive review of literature, consultation and discussion with experts of psychiatry, psychology, sociology and mental health nursing. Modification in self structured questionnaire was made on the basis of recommendations and suggestion of expert, guide and co- guide.

Description of Tools

  1. Part A: It includes items for obtaining personal information's of subjects i.e. identification data including age, gender, class, type of family and income of family which were used to assess the baseline information of the subjects.
  2. Part B: The Aggression Scale by G.P. Mathur and Rajkumari Bhatnagar, is a 55 items self report instrument with 5 point scale that measure aggression. It consists of 55 statements, 30 statements are positive and 25 statements are in negative form. Subject responses are measured on a five-point scale. In positive form score will be given as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 respectively and in negative form of statement scores will be given as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively as showed below:

Results

Frequency and percentage distribution of Socio-demographic variables shows that around 49% adolescents were in the age of 16 years, 28.0% were in the age group of 15 years, 17.5% were in the age group of 17years and rest 3.0% adolescents were in the age of 18 years. Out of 200 adolescents 55% were males and 45% were females. 39% adolescents were from 11th class followed by 37% from 12th class and 24% from 10th class. Around 65% adolescents were living in nuclear family, 35.0 % were living in joint families. According to monthly family income of their family shows highest percentage belonged to 85% with Rs 25000 and above and lowest 5% with Rs 5001-15000. Table 1 reveals that majority (89%) of the adolescents were having average level of aggression, (10%) of adolescents were having mild aggression and only (1%) of adolescents were having severe aggression. Findings related to factors contributing to aggressive behavior among adolescents.

Level of Aggression

Frequency    (f)

Percentage  (%)

Mean ± SD (N=200)

Mild (below 154)

2

1

140.0 ± 15.19

Average (155-204)

178

89

183.4 ± 12.33

Severe (205&above)

20

10

211.6 ± 4.18

Table 1: Frequency and distribution of Level of Aggression

Table 2a reveals frequency and percentage distribution of environmental factors contributing aggressive behavior among adolescents. It shows that (44.5%) of adolescents had favorable environment, (42.5%) had highly favorable environment and 13% of them were having unfavorable environment. (44.5%) of adolescents belong to urban area followed by (42.5%) from rural area and only (13%) of them belong to semi urban area. Majority (73.5) of the adolescents were satisfied from their habitat and minority (26.5%) of them were not satisfied. Majority (73.5%) of the adolescents were attending tuitions and minority (26.5%) of them were not attending tuitions. Thus it is concluded that favorable environment, urban area, satisfaction from habitat and attending tuitions are the environmental factors which contribute to aggressive behavior.

S.No

Parameters

Frequency(f)

Percentage (%) (N=200)

1

Family Environment

a. Highly favorable

85

42.5

b. Favorable

89

44.5

c. Unfavorable

26

13

2

Habitat

a. Rural

85

42.5

b. Urban

89

44.5

c. Semi-Urban

26

13

3

Satisfaction from habitat

a. Yes

147

73.5

b. No

53

26.5

4

Attending tuitions

a. Yes

147

73.5

b. No

53

26.5

Table 2a: Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents related to Environmental factors.

Table 2b depicts frequency and percentage distribution of social factors contributing aggressive behavior among adolescents. Most of adolescents i.e. (56%) had unsatisfied relationship with their siblings followed by (43.5%) having satisfied relationship with their siblings. Regarding relationship with peers, (59%) of adolescents were having unsatisfactory relationship and (41%) were having satisfactory relationship with their siblings. As per the number of friends, (40%) of adolescents were having 3 or more friends, (36.5%) of adolescents were having 1-2 friends and (23.5%) of them were having o or no friend. Majority (75.5%) of adolescents participate in extracurricular activities and minority (24.4%) of them do not participate in extracurricular activities. Thus it is concluded that unsatisfied relationship with siblings, unsatisfied relationship with peers, having 3 or more friends and participation in extracurricular activities are the social factors which contribute to aggressive behavior among adolescents. Table 2c depicts frequency and percentage distribution of family factors contributing aggressive behavior among adolescents. Most (36%) of the adolescents mothers were self employed as well as unemployed followed by 28% of them were employed. (39%) of adolescents father were graduate and only (15.5%) of them were post graduate.

S.No

Parameters

Frequency(f)

Percentage (%)
(N=200)

1

Relationship with siblings

a. Satisfactory

87

43.5

b. Unsatisfactory

113

56.5

2

Relationship with peers

a. Satisfactory

82

41

b. Unsatisfactory

118

59

3

Number of friends

a. 0

47

23.5

b. 1-2

73

36.5

c. 3 or more than 3

80

40

4

Participation in extracurricular activities

a. Yes

151

75.5

b. No

49

24.5

Table 2b: Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents related to social factors.  

S.No

Parameters

Frequency(f)

Percentage (%)
(N=200)

1

Occupational status of mother

a. Employed

56

28

b. Self employed

72

36

c. Unemployed

72

36

2

Occupational status of father-

a. Employed

161

18.5

b. Self employed

28

14

c. Unemployed

11

5.5

3

Educational status of mother

a. Primary education

42

21

b. Secondary education

57

28.5

c. Graduate

73

36.5

d. Post graduate

28

14

4

Educational status of  father

a. Primary education

40

20

b. Secondary education

51

25.5

c. Graduate

78

39

d. Post graduate

31

15.5

5

Number of siblings

a. None

38

19

b. 1

71

35.5

c. More than 1

91

45.5

6

Order in the family

a. Middle

90

45

b. Younger

36

18

c. Elder

36

18

d. Single

38

19

7

Family set up

a. Broken family

-

-

b. Single father

-

-

c. Single mother

-

-

d. Normal

200

200

8

Feeling of security by parents

a. Secured

133

66.5

b. Unsecured

67

33.5

Table 2c: Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents related to family factors.

Regarding educational status (mother), (36.5%) were graduate and 14% were post graduate. Regarding educational status (father), (39%) of them were graduate followed by (25.5%) of them having secondary education. As per the number siblings (45%) of adolescents had more than 1 sibling and (19%) of them had no sibling. 45% of adolescents were having middle order in the family and (19%) were single in family and 18% of adolescents were having younger and middle order in the family. (100%) of the adolescents were having normal family set up. Majority of the adolescents feel security by their parents and minority (33.5%) of the adolescents feel unsecure by their parents. Thus it is concluded that self employed as well as unemployed mothers, graduation of father as well as mother, more than one 1 sibling, middle order in the family, normal family set up and feeling of security by parents contribute aggressive behavior among adolescents.

Table 2d depicts frequency and percentage distribution of personal factors contributing aggressive behavior among adolescents. (96.5%) of adolescents were not having any addiction to substance and only (3.5%) of adolescents had addiction to substance. More than half i.e (57%) of adolescents were not having any physical illness and (43%) of adolescents were having physical illness. (82%) of adolescents were having overt hostility followed by (42%) of them having covert hostility. More than half i.e. (57%) of adolescents were having no stressor followed by (43%) of adolescents having presence of stressor. Thus it can be concluded that not having addiction to any substance, not having any physical illness, overt hostility and absence of stressor are the personal factors which contribute to aggressive behavior among adolescents.

S.No

Parameters

Frequency(f)

Percentage (%)
(N=200)

1

Addiction to any substance

a. Yes

7

3.5

b. No

193

96.5

2

Presence of any physical illness

a. Yes

86

43

b. No

114

57

3

Hostility

a. Overt

116

58

b. Covert

84

42

4

Presence of any stressor

a. Yes

86

43

b. No

114

57

Table 2d: Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents related to Personal factors.

Discussion

It shows that that majority (89%) of the adolescents were having average level of aggression, 10% of adolescents were having mild aggression and only 1% of adolescents were having severe aggression. Chi square value between level of aggression score of adolescents and environmental factor as well as social factor was found to be statistically non significant. Level of aggression and family factor (occupation of father with p value 0.008 and order in the family with p value 0.001) was found significant at the level of 0.05. This reveals that there was significant association between level of aggression with family factor. Level of aggression and personal factor (addiction to any substance) has significant association with p value 0.001 at the level of 0.05.

Implications

The findings of this study will be used in different areas of nursing like area of service, education, administration and research. Present study result has following implications:

Nursing practice

  1. The present study would help the nurses to develop an understanding about the factors that lead to aggression among adolescents.
  2. The nurses working in psychiatric and pediatric units collaborate with doctors and other health care team members to reduce aggression.
  3. The community nurse can give guidelines to adolescents to reduce aggression.

Nursing education

  1. Enhancing education about the cause of aggressive behavior, its complications, preventive measures to reduce aggressive behavior.
  2. Application of complementary and alternative therapies of managing aggression should be taught in practical way to manage aggression symptoms in early stage.

Nursing research

  1. The nurse researcher can further plan, implement and utilize these findings on prevention of aggressive behavior to prevent further complications.
  2. The study can provide data to know and conduct more studies.

Nursing administration

  1. Nurse administrators can organize community level programme to increase awareness about behavioral problems.
  2. Nurse administrator can plan in-service education programme for staff nurses in order to update their knowledge regarding prevention of aggressive behavior.
  3. A public health workshop can be organized to make the public aware about the causes of aggressive behavior its prevention and management.

Limitations

  1. The study was limited to adolescents of selected schools of district Amritsar.
  2. Study results are limited to Indian population only.

Recommendations

  1. The study could be conducted in large settings to validate and generalize its findings.
  2. The same study could be conducted with different research approaches. Survey research can be conducted to reflect the whole population.
  3. A similar research can be taken with multi setting approach.

Based upon the research findings we recommend that efforts should be made to eliminate factors leading aggression among adolescents.

References

  1. Shobana NA (2010) Comparative study on Psychosocial Problems of Adolescents between selected rural and urban schools of Manglore. St Annes College of Nursing, India.
  2. Connor DF (2017) Aggression and Anti-social behavior including research and statistics.
  3. (2015) The Teenage and Aggression Causes and treatment.
  4. Onukwufor JN (2013) Physical and verbal aggression among adolescent secondary school student in Rivers of Nigeria. British journal of Education 1(2): 62-73.
  5. Townsand MC (2015) Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing. (8th edn) Jaypee brother’s publisher, India, pp. 263-264.
  6. Ruqaya I, Ghulam Y, Asif Y (2010) Sociological Study of the Factors Affecting the Aggressive Behavior among Youth. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS) 30(1): 99-108.
  7. Theoretical framework.
  8. Anderson CA (2004) An updated meta-analysis on the effect of playing violent videogames. J Adolesc 27(1): 113-122.
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